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Cces research discussion papers

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Bibliography management with bibtex. L a T e X supports bibliographies out of the box, either embedding the references in your document or storing them in discussion an external file. This article explains how to manage bibliography with the thebibliography environment and the BibTeX system. Note: If you are starting from scratch it's recommended to use biblatex since that package provides localization in several languages, it's actively developed and process through a policy analyzed, funded, or opposed, and implemented. makes bibliography management easier and more flexible. Standard bibliography commands in L a T e X have a similar syntax to that of lists and items. The environment thebibliography produces a list of references; such list will be titled References in research discussion a article document class, and Bibliography in book and report document classes. A parameter inside braces, 9 in the example, indicates the number of entries to be added; this parameter can not be greater than 99. To create a bibliography entry the command bibitem is used. 1000 Word Essay. A parameter inside braces is set to label this entry and can later be used as identifier for this reference. After the closing brace the text with the name of the author, the discussion, book title, publisher and so on is entered. Share L a T e X provides several templates with pre-defined styles to manage bibliography.

See this link. The example presented in the introduction only contains list of references, the next example shows how to w o essays, cite the entries of that list within the document. The command cite insert the number corresponding to research discussion, the bibliography entry whose label is passed inside braces. For example, the assessment, output of cite is [2]. The information printed by the command cite depends on the bibliography style used. See Bibtex bibliography styles. [edit] Bibliography management with Bibtex. BibTeX is a widely used bibliography management tool in L a T e X , with BibTeX the bibliography entries are kept in a separate file and then imported into the main document. Once the cces discussion papers, external bibliography file is imported, the command cite is used just as in the introductory example. Below, a description of the commands: bibliography Imports the BibTeX file sample.bib to display the bibliography.

To import several .bib files just write them comma-separated inside the malcolm thesis, braces, the file extension is cces research, not necessary. bibliographystyle Sets the bibliography style to be used in this document. The information displayed depends on the bibliography style used, even if the entry contains information about the date, author, title, publisher and abstract, the style used might only print the research paper, title and the author. See Bibtex bibliography styles which contains examples of the default bibliography styles in L a T e X . cite This will print a number of cces discussion text, depending on the bibliography style, to reference the bibliography entry whose label is passed to the command. In this case, the label einstein produces [2]. Note: Unicode characters are not supported on erik, BibTeX. Cces Research. Also, if there are too many bibliography entries (+100) it may not work properly. See the erikson essays, further reading section for links to other bibliography management tools . Bibliographic references are usually kept in cces research discussion papers a bibliography file whose extension is .bib, this file consists of a list of records and fields . Each bibliography record holds relevant information for a single entry. This file contains records in a special format, for instance, the first bibliographic reference is defined by: @article This is the first line of scholarships w o a record entry, @article denotes the entry type and tells BibTeX that the information stored here is cces research discussion, about an article.

Besides the entry types shown in the example ( article , book and misc ) there are a lot more, see the assessment deadline, reference guide. einstein The label einstein is assigned to this entry, is an identifier that can be used to refer this article within the document. author = Albert Einstein, This is the first field in the bibliography entry, indicates that the author of this article is Albert Einstein. Several comma-separated fields can be added using the same syntax key = value , for discussion, instance: title, pages, year, URL, etc. See the reference guide for a list of possible fields. The information in this file can later be used within a L a T e X document to assessment paper deadline, include these references, as shown in the next subsection. [edit] Adding the research discussion, bibliography in the table of contents. There are two ways of including the bibliography in the table of contents, either manually adding it or using the package tocbibind (recommended).

To add it manually just insert the next line right before the erikson, command begin or bibliography. for cces research, books and reports or. for articles. If you prefer to use tocbibind see the next example. Adding the line. to the specific process through must to be defined, analyzed, supported or opposed,, the preamble will print the References or Bibliography in papers the table of contents, depending on self, the document type. Be careful, it will also add other elements like the cces research discussion, Index, Glossary and list of Listings to the table of contents. For more information see [the tocbibind package documentation].

Standard entry types. article Article from a magazine or journal book A published book booklet A work that is printed but have no publisher or sponsoring institution conference An article in a conference proceedings inbook A part of a book (section, chapter and word essay equals many so on) incollection A part of a book having its own title inproceedings An article in a conference proceedings manual Technical documentation masterthesis A Master's thesis misc Something that doesn't fit in any other type phdthesis A PhD thesis proceedings The same as conference techreport Report published by cces research discussion, an institution unpublished Document not formally published, with author and scholarships essays title.

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Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) Discussion Papers

Natural Disasters on Earth: Essay on Natural Disasters (9069 Words) Here is your comprehensive essay on Natural Disasters! A natural disaster is cces research discussion papers, unforeseen, severe and immediate. Malcolm? Pollution, ozone depletion in discussion papers the stratosphere and global warming come in Trace the specific process a policy in order analyzed, researched, supported and finally passed and implemented. this category. Natural disasters include cyclones, earthquakes, floods, drought (though these two are now being increasingly considered ‘man- made’ disasters) heat and cold waves, landslides, avalanches, flash floods, severe thunder­storms, hail, low level wind shears, and microburst. Image Courtesy : go.standard.net/sites/default/files/images/2013/05/22/interactive-slc-exhibit-conveys-power-of-natural-disasters-27436.jpg. The destructive potential of any natural hazard is estimated basically by its spatial extent and severity. Research Papers? Spatial extent upto which the effect of a disastrous event could be felt may easily be classified into small, medium and large scales. The phenomenon extending from a few kilometers to a few tens of kilometers are termed as small scale.

Growing industrialisation and unjustified exploitation of word equals pages, natural resources have brought our echo system to cces discussion a verge of non-reversibility and imbalance. This has led to a threat from a set of natural hazards like pollution, global warming and ozone depletion on large or global scale. The management aspect of disaster may be classified as: (a) early warning system; (b) rescue operations; (c) relief operations; (d) rehabilitation; and (e) long range planning. The most important is the early warning systems. Unless sufficient advance notice is available, evacuation of the population likely to be affected cannot be undertaken. There are two aspects of paper deadline, early warning system.

One is the availability of an effective technique to forecast the disaster with its extent and the other is effective communication of the same to the civil authority responsible for rescue operations. In some phenomena, such as cyclones, flood, etc. the time available to respond to the hazard is of the order of cces papers, a few days. Hence early warning, communication, and rescue operations are possible. Erik Essays? But, in a few cases like flash floods, microburst, etc., the response time is of the order of few minutes only, which calls for a very fast early warning and efficient communication system. The human-activity-induced hazards like pollution and global warming have already started showing their precur­sors, giving sufficient time to control and avoid these hazards by long term planning.

On the contrary, in earthquakes no proven methods has yet been evolved to discussion give any prior warning and so post-hazard mitigation is the only alternative. Role of Communication For a developing country like India, the role of erikson, communication in disaster mitigation is extremely critical. Vast areas of the country do not have telephone/ telegraph links. These can neither be provided in a short span of research discussion, time available for mitigation nor are there resources to do so. We have to depend on existing links, many of which completely break down during the disaster. The various types available for dissemination of disaster warning as well as arranging mitigation are: (a) land line links; (b) underground cable links; (c) wireless links; (d) microwave (LOS); and (e) satellite links.

The only effective communication which is erikson essays, likely to remain completely or partially unaf­fected is the satellite link. This assumes that the earth stations at the two ends are suitably located to remain unaffected. Further link between the cces, earth station and the affected area is usually through microwave/ land line, which has its limitation as it may break down. The most effective way of dissemination of warning is Disaster Warning System (DWS) used by the IMD for issue of cyclone bulletin to the coastal areas. This could be extended to erik the entire earthquake/ flood prone areas. Experience has shown that it remains completely unaffected under the severest cyclonic condition. However, the system is limited to one way communication only.

For effective two way communication, VHF/UHF links should be established from every earth station to the affected zone. Use of existing police VHF/UHF link can be made. The only addition required is the missing link between the nearest earth station to police headquarters. The linking of these with police VHF/UHF stations would not involve large investments. This would be a cost effective and reliable communication system for disaster warning and mitigation. Stated simply, ‘an earthquake is a vehement shake of the earth from natural causes’. Technically an earthquake is a phenomenon of strong vibrations occurring on the ground, consequent to release of large amount of energy within a short period of time because of some disturbance in the earth’s crust or in cces the upper part of the mantle. The theory of plate tectonics offers a comprehensive explanation for several geological phenomena — continental drift, mountain building and self deadline, volcanism, and, of course, earthquake.

According to this theory, when the molten mass that was the earth billions of years ago cooled down, the crust that was formed was not one homogenous piece but broken into about a dozen large plates and several smaller ones with their thickness ranging from 30 km down to the lithosphere at cces research discussion papers depth of about 100 km or so. The plates are in incessant motion, with speeds of about 1 cm to 5 cm a year. This mobile jigsaw puzzle is what is termed as the continental drift, which results in the formation of mountains, midoceanic ridges, ocean trenches, volcanoes and essay pages, seismic energy build­up. Where two places converge or collide, a deep trench forms and one plate is deflected downwards into research discussion papers, the asthenosphere which lies below the crust and the lithosphere. When two thick continential plates collide, rocks on the land are relatively light and too buoyant to descend into the asthenosphere. The result is a huge zone of crushing, with rocks and other materials being folded. And this is how the Himalayas have emerged or, in fact, are continuing to emerge. As the deformation of the plate margins goes on, energy builds up in rocks in the form of elastic strain which continues till it exceeds their elastic limits and the rocks give way. The sudden release of stored elastic energy causes earthquakes.

Earthquakes in paper India are caused by cces research papers the release of elastic strain energy created and replenished by essays the stresses from the cces, collision between the paper questioons, Indian plate and the Eurasian plate. The most intense earthquakes occur on the boundaries of the papers, Indian plate to research the east, north and west. In the Indian plate, faults are created when this rubs against the Eurasian plate. (When an earthquake occurs along a fault line within the research papers, plate, it is called an intra-plate earthquake. The majority of the essays, earthquakes occur along plate boundaries.) Earthquakes are also caused by volcanic activity.

Construction of large water reservoirs may also cause earthquakes—these are called reservoir-induced earthquakes. The movement of the plates and occurrence of earthquakes seem to be concentrated in certain areas or zones of the discussion, earth. Based on intensity and frequency of occurrence, world map is divided into the following earthquake zones or belts— Circum-Pacific Belt Surrounds the Pacific Ocean and accounts for more than three-fourths of the world’s earthquakes. Sometimes called the ‘Ring of Fire’, its epicentre are the coastal margins of North and South America and East Asia. These represent the malcolm x autobiography thesis, eastern and western margins of the Pacific Ocean respectively. Papers? The occurrence of maximum number of earthquakes in this region is due to four ideal conditions— (i) Junction of continental and oceanic margins. (ii) Zone of young folded mountains. (iii) Zone of self, active volcanoes. (iv) Subduction zone of destructive or convergent plate boundaries. Also called the Mediterranean Belt or Alpine-Himalayan Belt, it accounts for about 21 per cent of the total seismic shocks.

It includes the epicentres of the Alpine mountains and their offshoots in Europe, Mediterranean Sea, Northern Africa, Eastern Africa, Himalayan Mountains and Burmese hills. Mid-Atlantic Ridge Belt: The epicentres of this region are along the mid-Atlantic Ridge and research, the islands near the ridge. Research Paper? This belt represents the zone of cces research discussion, moderate and shallow focus earthquakes—the reason for this being the creation of transform faults and fractures because of splitting of plates followed by their movement in the opposite direction. Based on seismic data and erik, different geological and geophysical parameters, the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) had initially divided the country into five seismic zones. In 2003, however, BIS redefined the seismic map of India by merging zones I and II. Thus India has four such zones now—II, III, IV and V. There is thus no part of the country that can be termed earthquake free. Of the five seismic zones, zone V is the most active region and zone I shows least seismic activity. The entire north-eastern region falls in zone V. Besides the research, North- East, zone V includes parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Rann of Kachch in x autobiography Gujarat, northern Bihar and the Andaman and Nicobar islands. One of the reasons for this region being prone to earthquake is the presence of the young-fold Himalayan Mountains here which have frequent tectonic movements. Zone IV which is the next most active region of seismic activity covers Sikkim, Delhi, remaining parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar, northern parts of Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, parts of Gujarat and small portions of Maharashtra near the west coast.

Zone III comprises Kerala, Goa, Lakshadweep, remaining parts of Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, parts of Punjab, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. The remaining states with lesser known activity fall in zone II. The states of papers, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and w o, Bihar, the cces discussion papers, Bihar-Nepal border, the Rann of Katchh in Gujarat and the Andaman Islands fall into the unstable belt which stretches right across the globe. The high seismicity of the Indian subcontinent arises from the tectonic disturbances associated with the northward movement of the Indian plate, which is underthrasting the Eurasian plate. The Himalayan region has been the site for great earthquakes of the world of magnitude greater than 8.0. This highly seismic belt is essay equals pages, a branch of one of the three major seismic belts of the world called the “Alpide-Himalayan Belt”. The high seismicity region extends from Hindukush in cces research discussion papers the west to Sadiya in the northeast which further extends down to the Andaman and which a policy travel analyzed, researched, supported passed, Nicobar Islands.

Different institutions including the Indian Meteorogical Department and the Indian School of Mines, have after a study of mechanics of several earthquakes in the north- eastern region found that the thrust faulting was generally indicated along with Dawki fault and the Indo-Burma border. Dr. H. Teiedemann, a member of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute of the Seismological Society of research discussion papers, America, said in erik essays 1985 that the increased interplay activity near the north-eastern boundary in the Indian plate coupled with thrusting of the Himalayan Burmese sector pointed to the danger of earthquakes in the region. There are three kinds of seismic waves. Cces Research? Waves that move the fastest are called primary, or P, waves. These waves, like sound waves, travel longitudinally by alternate compression and expansion of the erik erikson, medium, like the movement of the bellows of an accordion. Somewhat slower are the secondary, or S, waves which propagate transversely in the form of snakelike wriggles at cces discussion right angle to the directions of travel. These cannot travel through liquids or gases. The slowest earthquake waves are the Trace through which must in order defined, researched, or opposed, passed and implemented., long, or L, waves which cause the most extensive damage as they move along the earth’s surface.

Incidentally, ‘L’ waves on sea floor cause sea waves on cces research, the surface called tsunamis. Erik Erikson Essays? They rise to discussion papers 100 feet or more and cause damage when they break on habitated coasts. All three kinds can be detected and deadline, recorded by sensitive instru­ments called seismographs. A seismograph is usually anchored to the ground and carries a hinged or suspended mass that is set into oscillation by ground movement during an earthquake. The instrument can record both horizontal and research, vertical ground movement in the form of wavy lines on paper or film. From the 1000 pages, record, called a seismogram, it is possible to find out how strong the quake was, where it began and how long it lasted. The location of the epicentre of a quake is papers, determined from the time of arrival of the through which must analyzed, researched, supported passed, P and S waves at cces the seismographic station. W O Essays? Since P waves travel at cces research a speed of about 8 km per second and S waves at 5 km per erik erikson essays, second, it is possible to compute the research discussion, distance of their origin from the seismic record. If the distance from three stations are computed, the exact location can be pin pointed. A circle of appropriate radius is drawn around each station.

The epicentre lies where the circles intersect. ‘Magnitude’ and x autobiography thesis, ‘intensity’ are the two ways in which a quake’s strength is generally expressed. The magnitude is a measure that depends on the seismic energy radiated by discussion the quake as recorded on x autobiography, seismographs. The intensity, in turn, is discussion, a measure that depends on the damage caused by the quake. Erik Erikson? It does not have a mathematical basis but is based on observed effects. A quake’s magnitude is cces research papers, usually measured in 1000 equals terms of the Richter scale.

Devised by the American seismologist, Charles Francis Richter, in 1932, the Richter scale is not a physical device but a logarithmic scale based on recordings of seismographs, instruments which automatically detect and record the intensity, direction and duration of a movement on the ground. The scale starts at one and has no upper limit. Since it is a logarithmic scale, each unit is 10 times greater than the previous one; in other words, an increase of one unit (whole number) on the Richter scale signifies a 10-fold jump in the quake’s size (or 31 times more energy released). On this scale, the smallest quake felt by humans is about 3.0, and the smallest quake capable of causing damage is about 4.5. The strongest quake ever recorded had a magnitude of 8.9. Richter magnitude effects are confined to the vicinity of the epicentre. The Richter scale has been immensely modified and cces papers, upgraded since it was introduced.

It remains the most widely known and used scale for measuring the magnitude of an earthquake. For measurement of the intensity of an scholarships, earthquake, the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale is used. The 12-point Mercalli scale measures the intensity of shaking during an earthquake and is assessed by inspecting the damage and interviewing survivors of the earthquake. As such, it is extremely subjective. Furthermore, because the intensity of shaking varies from one place to another during an earthquake, different Mercalli ratings can be given for the same earthquake. Unlike the Mercalli scale, the Richter scale measures the magnitude of an earthquake at its epicentre. What are aftershocks?

Aftershocks are earthquakes that often occur during the days and months that follow some larger quake. Aftershocks occur in the same general region as the main shock and research papers, are believed to be the result of word essay equals, minor readjustment of stress at place in the fault zones. Cces Research? Generally, major quakes are followed by essay equals pages a larger number of cces research, aftershocks, decreasing in frequency with time. Aftershocks may rock a region for as long as four to six months after the initial quake. However, strong ones last only a few days.

Aftershocks are generally not as strong in paper deadline magnitude as the initial tremor. But a small chance of papers, them being stronger in scholarships w o essays magnitude cannot be ruled out, in cces research papers which case the first and aftershocks become known as foreshocks. How frequently do quakes occur? Earthquakes occur every day around the world. Essays? Each day there are about 1,000 very small earthquakes measuring 1 to 2 on the Richter scale. Approximately, there is one every 87 seconds. Annually, on an average, there are 800 quakes capable of cces research papers, causing damage with a magnitude of 5-5.9, and 18 major ones with a magnitude of 7 or more. The science of earthquake prediction is at its infancy at present, even though several intensive attempts in this direction have been going on erik erikson essays, for the last two to three decades in the USA, Russia, Japan, China and India. In spite of some breakthroughs— the notable example being the cces, prediction of the 1975 Haicheng earthquake of China (7.3M)—there is yet no reliable system to predict an earthquake. For, just a year later in 1976, the seismologists could not predict the word essay equals, Tangshan earthquake.

To predict earthquakes one has to first fully understand the underlying dynamics. Cces Research Discussion Papers? For example, even though it is known that this intense seismic activity is a result of the north-northeastern movement and under thrusting of the essays, Indian plate, it is not known what fraction of the strain energy is being released by earthquakes along the discussion, belt. Aside from such dynamic imputs, an empirical basis of prediction can be founded by recognising, monitoring and malcolm x autobiography thesis, interpreting observable and decipherable precursory phenomena. Present day earthquake prediction techniques have mainly to do with precursory phenomena. The parameters that are normally looked at include electrical resistivities, geomagnetic properties, variation in cces the ratio of compressional to essays shear wave velocities, etc. Even radon emission from the earth’s crustal layers increase before an impending earthquake. One approach is to papers predict earthquakes on the basis of changes believed or known to precede an earthquake.

Such earthquake precursors include abnormal tilting of ground, change in strain in rock, dilatancy of rocks which could be measured by a change in velocities, ground and water levels, sharp changes in process which in order to be defined, passed and implemented. pressure, and unusual lights in the sky. The behaviour of some animals is also believed to undergo a distinct change prior to research discussion an earthquake. Some lower creatures are perhaps more sensitive to sound and vibrations than humans; or endowed with what one may call prescience. Another approach is to estimate the probabilistic occurrence of an malcolm x autobiography, earthquake statistically by cces relating the past occurrences to weather conditions, volcanic activity and tidal forces. There have been some notable Indian efforts too in developing prediction models in the Himalayan-belt context. One relates to Trace the specific process through which analyzed, researched, supported or opposed, and finally passed the so- called seismic gaps, which postulates that great earthquakes rupture the Himalayan arc whose total length is about 1700 km.

Of this, about 1400 km is supposed to have been ruptured releasing part of the pent-up energy during the last four great earthquakes, leaving a portion of about 300 km to be broken in a “future great earthquake”. The most likely unruptured gaps in the Himalayan arc are stated to be in Uttar Pradesh (Ganga Basin), and in Kashmir. Proponents of this model have postulated that the entire Himalayan detachment would rupture in 180-240 years, the rupture being caused by a 8.0 M plus earthquake. This hypothesis forms the basis for cces research discussion the apprehension of the Tehri dam being subjected to earthquakes of this magnitude. Some scientists have noted that certain cycles of Trace through which a policy in order defined, researched, or opposed, and finally passed, low and high seismicity characterise the Alpide belt. For example, after an extremely active cycle from cces discussion papers 1934 to self assessment 1951, with 14 earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7.7 a quiet phase began in cces 1952, and till now only four such events have occurred. In the world scientific community, the latest in earthquake prediction techniques have come from the United States.

One method developed by the Americans involves the use of laser beams. These beams are shot from an observatory to a geostationary satellite in space. On hitting the satellite, the waves are reflected back to the observatory. A substantial difference in the time taken by malcolm x autobiography the laser beams to travel between the two points is an indication of considerable tectonic plate movement, and perhaps an imminent earthquake. A recent study of cces research papers, Indonesian reefs showed that corals record cyclical environmental events and scholarships w o essays, could predict a massive earthquake in the eastern Indian Ocean within the next 20 years. The study conducted off Indonesia’s Sumatra Island showed they have annual growth rings, like those in tree trunks, which record cyclical events such as earthquakes. Scientists said the earthquake could be similar to the magnitude 9.15 earthquake which sparked the devastating 2004 tsunami and left more than two lakh people either dead or missing across Asia. The corals off Sumatra’s Mentawai Islands showed a major earth­quake had occurred every 200 years since 1300.

When earthquakes push the seafloor upward, lowering local sea level, the corals cannot grow upward and grew outward instead, a major indication. An area off Sumatra that has been the source of disastrous earthquakes, still carries a lot of discussion papers, pent-up pressure that could result in another strong quake, noted the study reported in the journal Nature. It is not, however, clear as of now whether a precise earthquake prediction and warning system can be developed and through must travel to be defined, funded, supported or opposed, passed and implemented., put to any effective use. The greatest damage in an earthquake is caused by the destruction of cces discussion papers, buildings and resultant loss of life and property and process must to be defined, researched,, destruction of infrastructure. The earthquakes having the cces research papers, same magnitude on the Richter scale may vary in damage from place to place. Thesis? The extent of cces papers, damage that an earthquake can cause may depend on more than one factor. The depth of the focus may be one factor. Earthquakes can be very deep and in such cases surface damage may be less. The extent of damage also depends on how populated and developed an area is.

A ‘great’ earthquake in an uninhabited or virtually uninhabited area will be less damaging than a ‘large’ earthquake in a highly populated area. The National Buildings Organisation of India lists weaknesses in burnt brick buildings as follows: i. Poor strength of material in paper deadline tension-and shear. ii. Toothed joint causing a vertical plane of weakness between perpendicular walls. iii. Large openings placed too close to the corners.

Long rooms having long walls unsupported by cross-walls. iv. Unsymmetrical plan, or with too many projections. v. Use of heavy roofs having flexibility in plan. vi. Use of light roofs with little binding effects on walls. Some measures to prevent building collapse during the earthquake are: symmetry and rectangularity of building; symmetry in locating openings; simplicity in elevation or avoidance of ornamentation; intersecting internal walls so as to divide the cces research discussion papers, total plan in square enclosures of not more than 6 m wide; use of word pages, steel or wooden dowels going into walls meeting at corners (shear walls) or T-junctions to provide effective bonding; use of bond beam or band of reinforced concrete at lintel levels of research papers, openings and serving as lintel too. The last one is the malcolm x autobiography thesis, one feature that is cces, most effective in ensuring the integrity of enclosures like a rigid box.

For masonry construction, the self assessment, BIS has specified that materials to be used should be well-burnt bricks and not sun-dried bricks. The use of arches to span over openings is a source of weakness and should be avoided unless steel ties are provided. Scientists have suggested designing buildings to counter quake movement by shifting the centre of gravity with the help of a steel weight placed on cces, the top of the buildings. In plain areas or towns which are located on a river bank, or situated on a thick layer of alluvial soil (like Ahmedabad), the essays, ‘deep piles technology’ may be useful. In this technique, thick, columns of concrete and steel are inserted 10-30 metre deep into the soil beneath the regular foundation. In case of cces discussion, earthquakes, these pillars provide extra strength and prevent the buildings from collapsing.

In the ‘base isolation technique’, heavy blocks of research questioons, rubber and steel are put between the foundation and the building. During a quake, the rubber absorbs the shocks. In high-rises, enlarged structures on the top floors should be avoided. Enlarged top storeys shift the centre of gravity higher making the building more unstable during the earthquake. ‘Soft first storeys’ should be avoided. In cities, many buildings stand on cces research papers, columns. Paper? The ground floor is generally used for parking and walls start from the first floor. These buildings collapse quickly during an earthquake.

Independent tall cores should be avoided unless they are tied to the main structure. Tropical cyclones, the most destructive of nature’s phenomena, are known to form over all tropical oceans except over the South Atlantic and the South Pacific, east of about 140° W. An intense low pressure area in the atmosphere is formed before/after the cces research, monsoon. It is associated with fierce wind and heavy rainfall. Horizontally it extends from 500 to 1000 km and vertically from the surface to about 14 km. Severe tropical cyclones cause considerable damage to property and agricultural crops.

The principal dangers posed are: (a) fierce winds; (b) torrential rains and x autobiography, associated flooding; and research discussion papers, (c) high storm tides (combined effect of storm surge and tides). Malcolm X Autobiography Thesis? Rainfall up to 20 to 30 cm a day is cces, common. The highest ever sustained winds recorded in the case of tropical cyclones are 317 kmph. Storm surge (rise of sea level) of four metres are common. The highest sea level elevation in the world due to continued effect of storm surge and astronomical high tide occurred in 1876 near Bakerganj, where the sea level rose by about 12 metres above the mean sea level on erik erikson, that occasion. Tropical cyclones over the Bay of Bengal occur in two district seasons, the research discussion, pre-monsoon months of April-May and the post-monsoon months of erik essays, October-November. On an cces research, average, in fact, almost half a dozen tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea every year, out of which two or three may be severe. Out of malcolm thesis, these, the stormiest months are May-June, October and cces papers, November. Compared to assessment the pre- monsoon season of May, June, when severe storms are rare, the papers, months of October and November are known for severe cyclones. The IMD has published the tracks of the cyclones since 1891 and updates them every year in its quarterly scientific journal, Mausam. As 90 per cent of the deaths in severe cyclones all over the world occur in high storm surges accompanying them, the only feasible method to save the lives of human beings and research paper, animals is to evacuate them to cces discussion safe inland cyclone shelters as early as possible after the receipt of advance cyclone warnings from the IMD.

The evacuation of people is research paper questioons, difficult in flat coastal districts as in cces discussion papers Bangladesh where the tides of six to paper 10 metres above the sea level submerges offshore islands and travels inland for considerable distances. Tropical cyclones are by nature devastating mainly because of their place of discussion, birth, namely, the 1000 essay, Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). This is a narrow belt at the equator, where the trade winds of the research papers, two hemispheres meet. It is a region of high radiation energy which supplies the necessary heat for the vaporisation of sea water into the air. This moist unstable air rises, generates convective clouds and leads to an atmospheric disturbance with a fall in surface atmospheric pressure. This causes a convergence of surrounding air towards this region of low pressure. The converging mass of air gains a rotary motion because of what is known as the Coriolis force caused by self assessment the rotation of the Earth.

However, under favourable circumstances, such as high sea-surface temperatures, this low pressure area can get accentuated. The convective instability builds up into an organised system with high-speed winds circulating around the low pressure interior. The net result is a well formed cyclone consisting of a central region of light winds known as the ‘eye’. The eye has an average radius of research discussion, 20 to 30 km. in fact, in process through travel supported or opposed, passed and implemented. a mature storm like in Bangladesh. It can even be as much as 50 km. Given the existing scientific knowledge about research discussion papers, cyclones, it is not yet possible to physically dissipate the buildup of a massive cyclone. Cures are generally worse than the disease. For example, while seeding by sodium iodide crystals has been attempted in some parts of the world— with marginal success—a more effective prescription proposed sometimes is a nuclear explosion. Obviously, that would be trading one disaster for w o essays an even greater one.

Accepted technology, therefore, only provides the capability to detect and track cyclones with sophisticated satellite imagery and ground- based radar systems. But here too the research discussion, limitations are glaring. Atmospheric science, for example, is not yet in a position to unambiguously predict the motion and behaviour of a cyclone more than 24 hours ahead of its arrival. So all that is possible in that brief span is to scholarships w o essays warn the vulnerable sections of the population of the imminent danger and adopt measures to cces research discussion move them to erikson essays safer cyclone withstanding structures. The frequency, intensity and coastal impact of cyclones varies from region to region. Interestingly, the frequency of tropical cyclones is the least in the north Indian Ocean regions of the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea; they are also of cces discussion, moderate intensities. But the cyclones are deadliest when they cross the 1000 many, coast bordering North Bay of Bengal (coastal areas of papers, Orissa, West Bengal and Bangladesh). This is mainly due to storm surges (tidal waves) that occur in w o this region inundating the coastal areas. Discussion? Over the last two-and-a-half centuries, 17 of the the specific through in order to be defined, analyzed, researched, supported or opposed, passed and implemented., 22 severe tropical cyclones—each causing loss of more than 10,000 human lives—took place in the North Bay of Bengal. While gales and strong winds, as well as torrential rain, that usually accompany a cyclone can cause sufficient havoc to cces discussion property and agriculture, loss of human life and cattle is mainly due to storm surges. If the terrain is shallow and shaped like a funnel, like that of Bangladesh—much of the Trace the specific which a policy travel to be defined, passed, exposed land is just about at the mean sea level or even less—storm surges get enormously amplified.

Coastal inundation due to cces a combination of research paper, high tide and storm surge can cause the worst disaster. India has an efficient cyclone warning system. Tropical cyclones are tracked with the help of (i) regular observation from weather network of cces papers, surface and upper air observation stations, (ii) ships report, (iii) cyclone detection radars, (iv) satellites, and equals many pages, (v) reports from commercial aircraft. Ships of merchant fleet have meteorological instruments for taking observations at sea. A network of cyclone detection radars have been set up along the coast at Kolkata, Paradip, Visakhapatnam, Machilipatnam, Chennai, Karaikal, Kochi, Goa, Mumbai and Bhuj. The range of these radars is 400 km. When the cyclone is beyond the range of coastal radars, its intensity and movement is monitored with weather satellites. Warnings are issued by research discussion papers the area cyclone warning centres located at Kolkata, Chennai and Mumbai, and cyclone warning centres at Bhubaneswar, Visakhapatnam and Ahmedabad.

IMD has developed a system known as Disaster Warning System (DWS) to transmit cyclone warning bulletins through INSAT-DWS to the recipients. This consists of the following elements: (i) The cyclone warning centre for originating the area code of the districts and disaster warning message; (ii) The earth station located near the cyclone warning centre with uplink facility in C-band and suitable communication links; (iii) The C/S band transponder on Trace through a policy must in order analyzed, and finally passed, board INSAT; and. (iv) The INSAT-DWS receivers located in cyclone prone areas. Typically, in a cyclone the maximum devastative effects are within about 100 km from the centre and on the right of the storm track where all the islands lie. Evacuating the research, population just 24 hours before would require an army of high speed boats, an unfeasible proposition for a resource—poor country. The obvious solution, therefore, would be to provide a large number of storm shelters in the particularly vulnerable areas. So inured are we to x autobiography the annual phenomena of floods in season, that one more village practically washed away by a flash flood causes no more than a ripple.

But for the people there it is papers, a traumatic experience. In most cases ‘flooding’ is caused by a river over-spilling its banks due to (a) excessive precipitation, (b) obstruction in the river bed, (c) inadequate waterways at rail/road crossings, (d) drainage congestion, and (e) change in river course. Flood forecasting in India commenced in 1958 with the establish­ment of a unit in erik Central Water Commission (CWC). Earlier, it used to be done by a conventional method—gauge to gauge or discharge correlation by which future gauges at research papers forecast points are estimated on the basis of gauge discharge observed at erik some upstream station. Gradually, other parameters like precipitation, etc. were incorporated. Nowadays, computer-based hydrological models are being used for inflow and flood forecasting. The basic information required for flood forecasting is rainfall data of the catchment area of the research discussion, river. Due to poor communication and inaccessibility, complete information is not always available. However, with sophisticated high-powered S-band radars, it is now possible to estimate the rainfall in an area of up to 200 km around the radar site. This system is used extensively in equals many the US for estimating the rainfall potential in the catchment areas of major rivers an issue of flood forecast warning.

The use of radar for the precipitation estimate is based on the principle that the amount of echo return from cces research a volume of cloud depends on the number and 1000 word equals, size of hydrometeros in it. Research Discussion? The empirical relationship between the echo return and the rainfall rates has been developed for various types of rain. Using fast switching digital circuits, the return video is digitised, integrated, normalised and contoured into standard six or seven rainfall rates. Observations taken every ten minutes can be cumulatively added and averaged to research questioons give 24-hour rainfall prediction over the region. Cces? Through appropriate modes, the questioons, information from a number of radar sites can be sent to cces discussion papers a central office where powerful computers process the data and yield the overall rainfall potential of the weather system. The advantage of using radars for hydrological work lies in paper questioons the fact that the information over the inaccessible region is available without actual human intervention. Of course, there are many assumptions which do not always hold good, thereby introducing large errors in the result. But with suitable calibration with actual gauge measurements correction factors could be applied. Another advantage of the discussion papers, radar measurement that it puts the time for the collection of rainfall data thereby increasing the lead time available for rescue/evacuation efforts in the region likely to be affected.

There are two ways to reduce flood damage—structural and non­structural measures. The former include construction of dams, embank­ments, drainage channels, etc. Scholarships W O? This has not helped much as population has moved into areas where flooding used to occur and has been controlled due to research discussion papers structure. Whenever flooding level is higher than what the structure can hold, the erik essays, result is devastating. The non-structural approach calls for removing populations from the flood plains. Another important aspect is to reduce the silting of rivers. Cces Research Papers? Afforestation in the catchment areas, along the erik erikson, river banks, helps in maintaining the effective river volume.

The National Flood Commission (NFC) was set up specifically to deal with the cces research papers, problem of floods. Malcolm? But it is research, evident that, over the last four decades or so, flood control efforts have proved counter-productive because they have not included adequate planning for conservation of watersheds. As a result the 1000 word many, increasing siltation of rivers is accelerating their rate of flow in flood, eventually forcing even well built embankments to give way. Research? As is well known, embankments increase the force of the river by channelling it over a narrow area instead of permitting it to spread. The danger of relying too heavily on the system of embankments for flood control has been well documented.

Apart from the depletion in forest cover, overgrazing contributes greatly to soil loss in thesis the catchment areas. Even in the mountainous areas, where efforts have been made to plant trees on steep slopes to reduce the soil loss during rains, mountain goats have impeded the process of regeneration. Cattle and goats also destroy the plant cover that springs up after the rain which is crucial for holding down the soil. Human activity is discussion papers, yet another factor. Quarrying, road construction, and other building activity in sensitive catchment areas add to the soil loss. As a result of all these factors, the silt load of many rivers has increased greatly. The siltation level of dams, which has generally been underestimated at w o the time of construction has had to research papers be revised by 50 to 400 per cent in some cases. Siltation reduces the capacity of reservoirs. Consequently in order to save the dam, unscheduled and panic releases of water are resorted to often without giving adequate warning to people downstream who live in paper the path of the cces research discussion, released water. Thus ironically dams built partly to assist in flood control, are today contributing to the devastation caused by thesis floods.

The phenomenon that really ought to engage the minds of papers, planners is how and why the flood-prone area in the country is increasing each year. Even areas which have never known floods in the past are now affected. The NFC estimates that 40 million hectares are flood-prone of which 32 million hectares can be protected. Although flood management is a state subject, the malcolm, Union govern­ment provides Central assistance to the flood-prone states for a few specified schemes, which are technical and promotional in discussion nature. Some such Centrally-sponsored schemes are: critical anti-erosion works in Ganga basin states, critical anti-erosion works in coastal and other than Ganga basin states, maintenance of flood protection works of Kosi and Gandak projects, etc. The Central government provides special assistance to the Border States and north eastern states for taking up some special priority works. The Central Water Commission is engaged in flood forecasting on inter-state river basins through 134 river-level forecasting and 25 inflow forecasting stations on major dams/barrages throughout the country.

A tsunami is a series of scholarships w o, travelling ocean waves which are set off by geological disturbances near the floor of the ocean. The waves of very, very long wavelengths and period rush across the ocean and increase their momentum over a stretch of thousands of kilometers. Some tsunamis may appear as a tide but they are not tidal waves in reality. While tides are caused by gravitational influences of the moon, sun and the planets, tsunamis are seismic sea waves. That is, they are related to an earthquake- related mechanism of generation. Tsunamis are usually a result of earthquakes, but may be at times caused by landslides or volcanic eruption or, very rarely, a large meteorite impact on the ocean. The tsunami can be understood at cces the basic level by looking at the series of concentric ripples formed in a lake when a stone is thrown into it. The Specific Through Which A Policy Must To Be Defined, Funded, Passed And Implemented.? A tsunami is like those ripples but caused by a disturbance much greater in discussion papers magnitude. Tsunamis are shallow-water waves different from the erikson, wind-generated waves which usually have a period of cces research discussion, five to twenty seconds which refers to the time between two successional waves of about 100 to 200 metres. Tsunamis behave as shallow-water waves because of their long wave­lengths. They have a period in the range of ten minutes to two hours and a wavelength exceeding 500 km.

The rate of energy loss of a wave is inversely related to Trace through must in order to be analyzed, researched, funded, or opposed, and implemented. its wavelength. So tsunamis lose little energy as they propagate as they have a very large wavelength. So they will travel at high speeds in research deep waters and travel great distances as well losing little energy. A tsunami that occurs 1000 metres deep in water has a speed of 356 km per hour. At 6000 m, it travels at 873 Ion per malcolm, hour. It travels at different speeds in water: it travels slow in research water that is shallow and fast in deep water. As an average ocean depth of 5000 m is assumed, one talks of tsunamis as having an average speed of about 750 km per hour. The long gravity tsunami waves are caused by two interacting processes. There is the slope of the sea surface which creates a horizontal pressure force. Then there is the piling up or lowering of sea surface as water moves in paper questioons varying speeds in the direction that the wave form is moving.

These processes together create propagating waves. A tsunami can be caused by any disturbance that displaces a large water mass from its equilibrium position. An undersea earthquake causes buckling of the sea floor, something that occurs at subduction zones, places where drifting plates that constitute the outer shell of the earth converge and the heavier oceanic plate dips below the lighter continents. As a plate plunges into the interior of the earth it gets stuck against the edge of a continental plate for a while, when stresses build up, then the locked zone gives way. Parts of the ocean floor then snap upward and other areas sink downward. In the research, instant after the quake, the sea surface shape resembles the contours of the essays, seafloor. But then gravity acts to cces papers return the essays, sea surface to its original shape.

The ripples then race outward and a tsunami is caused. Killer tsunamis have been generated by subduction zones off Chile, Nicaragua, Mexico and Indo­nesia in the past. There were 17 tsunamis in the Pacific from 1992 to 1996 which resulted in 1,700 deaths. During a submarine landslide, the research discussion, equilibrium sea-level is altered by sediment moving along the scholarships, floor of the sea. Cces Research? Gravitational forces then propagate a tsunami. Again, a marine volcanic eruption can generate an impulsive force that displaces the water column and gives birth to a tsunami. Above water landslides and objects in space are capable of disturbing the water when the falling debris, like meteorites, displace the water from its equilibrium position. As a tsunami leaves deep waters and propagates into the shallow waters, it transforms. This is because as the paper questioons, depth of the water decreases, the speed of the tsunami reduces.

But the change of cces research discussion, total energy of the tsunami remains constant. With decrease in speed, height of the tsunami wave grows. A tsunami which was imperceptible in deep water may grow to many metres high and this is called the ‘shoaling’ effect. Tsunami attacks can come in different forms depending upon the geometry of the seafloor warping that first caused the waves. Sometimes, the sea seems to at first draw a breath but then this withdrawal is followed by arrival of the crest of a tsunami wave. Tsunamis have been known to occur suddenly without warning. The water level on the shore rises to many metres: more than 15 m for tsunamis originating at a distance and over 30 metres for tsunamis that originate near the earthquake’s epicentre. Waves can be large and violent in one coastal area while another is not affected. Areas can be flooded inland to 305 metres or more; when tsunami waves retreat, they carry things and people out to sea. Tsunamis may reach a maximum vertical height onshore above sea level of 30 metres. The size of the which a policy must to be supported and finally passed, tsunami waves is determined by the quantum of deformation of the sea floor.

Greater the papers, vertical displacement, greater will be the wave size. For tsunamis to occur, earthquakes must happen underneath or near the ocean. They must be large and create movements in 1000 word equals the ocean floor. The size of the tsunami is determined by the earthquake’s magnitude, depth, fault characteristics and coincident slump­ing of sediments or secondary faulting. Subduction zones off Chile, Nicaragua, Mexico and Indonesia have created killer tsunamis. Cces Research Discussion Papers? The Pacific among the oceans has witnessed most number of tsunamis (over 790 since 1990). One of the deadliest tsunamis occurred in Asia on December 26, 2005. Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Somalia bore the brunt of the disaster that killed over 55,000 people. It was triggered by the most powerful earthquake recorded in the past four decades—one whose magnitude was 8.9 on the Richter scale. A tsunami with a magnitude 9.2 temblor struck Alaska in 1964. Geographical Changes Caused by Tsunamis:

Tsunamis and earthquakes can cause changes in geography. The December 26 earth­quake and tsunami shifted the North Pole by 2.5 cm in the direction of 145 degrees East longitude and reduced the length of the day by 2.68 microseconds. This in turn affected the process which travel analyzed, researched, funded, or opposed, and finally passed and implemented., velocity of earth’s rotation and the Coriolis force which plays a strong role in weather patterns. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands may have moved by about 1.25 m owing to the impact of the colossal earthquake and the tsunami. The warning of an oncoming tsunami cannot be obtained by merely detecting an cces research discussion papers, earthquake in erikson the seas; it involves a number of complex steps which have to be completed in a systematic and quick fashion. It was in research discussion papers 1965, that the international warning system was started. It is administered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

The member states of the NOAA include the major Pacific Rim countries in North America, Asia and South America, Pacific Islands, Australia and malcolm x autobiography thesis, New Zealand. The NOAA includes France, which has sovereignty over some Pacific islands, and Russia. Computer systems at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre (PTWC) in Hawaii monitor data from seismic stations in the USA and elsewhere warning is issued when an earthquake is shallow, located under the sea or close to cces research it and has a magnitude that is more than a pre-determined threshold. The NOAA has developed the ‘Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of scholarships w o essays, Tsunamis’ (DART) gauge. Each gauge has a very sensitive pressure recorder on the sea floor in which can detect the change in cces papers the height of the ocean it even if it is by just one cm. The data is transmitted acoustically to research paper a surface buoy which then relays it over satellite to discussion papers the warning centre. Erik Essays? There are seven DART gauges deployed at present and four more are being planned. PTWC has improved its performance rapidly as high-quality seismic data has been made available to it. The time it needed to issue a warning has fallen from research discussion papers up to 90 minutes some six years ago to 25 minutes or even less today.

The Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) constitutes computer models developed by 1000 essay pages the NOAA which can simulate the generation of research discussion papers, a tsunami and its inundation of dry land. The Indian Ocean is not prone to tsunamis. Only two have occurred in this ocean including one on December 26, 2004. India has been a leader in the initiative to develop a reliable tsunami warning system for the ocean. It has decided to x autobiography set up a sophisticated system for detecting deep sea movements and develop a network with the cces papers, countries in the Indian Ocean region for sharing information on tsunamis.

The Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting System (DOARS) will be set up six kilometers deep under the sea. It will have pressure sensors to detect the water movement. The sensors will be linked to the satellite that will relay information to the earth station. Some 6-12 more sensors would be installed later and the data buoys would be linked to the system that would record changes in the water level. The Indian government plans to set up a network with Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand which would calculate the research questioons, magnitude and intensity of research discussion, tsunamis from the data available to it.

DART-type gauges will be installed by the government and it will join 26 countries in a network that warn each other about tsunamis. A state-of-the-art National Tsunami Early Warning Centre, which has the capability to detect earthquakes of more than 6 magnitude in the Indian Ocean was inaugurated in 2007 in India. Set up by the Ministry of Earth Sciences in assessment paper the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), the 125-crore tsunami warning system would take 30 minutes to analyse the seismic data following an research discussion, earthquake. The system comprises a real-time network of seismic stations, bottom pressure recorders (BPRs), and word essay equals, 30 tide gauges to detect tsunamigenic earthquakes and monitor tsunamis. Many regions in India are highly vulnerable to natural and other disasters on account of geological conditions. Disaster management has therefore emerged as a high priority. Going beyond the historical focus on relief and rehabilitation after the catastrophe, there is a need to look ahead and plan for disaster preparedness and mitigation.

So, the development process needs to be sensitive towards disaster prevention, preparedness as well as mitigation to ensure that periodic shocks to cces research development efforts are minimised. About 60 per cent of the landmass in India is susceptible to earthquakes and over 8 per cent is process through a policy must in order defined, analyzed, funded,, prone to floods. Of the nearly 7,500 km long coastline, more than 5,500 km is prone to cyclones. Around 68 per cent area is also susceptible to drought. All this entails huge economic losses and causes developmental setbacks. However, India’s commitment to mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into the process of development planning at all levels so as to cces discussion papers achieve sustainable develop­ment is yet to be carried forward across sectors through actionable programmes for achieving the erik erikson, desired result. Tenth Five Year Plan Strategy and Approach : The Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-07) recognised disaster management as a development issue for the first time. It was prepared in the backdrop of the Orissa super cyclone (1999) and the massive Gujarat earthquake (2001).

Later the research papers, Tsunami in the Indian Ocean which devastated coastal communities in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Puducherry and Andaman in 2004 became the tipping point for initiating a series of steps by the government. India became one of the first countries to declare a national commitment to research questioons set up appropriate institutional mechanisms for more effective disaster management at the national, state and district levels. The Disaster Management Bill was subsequently adopted unani­mously. The Plan devoted a separate article to disaster management and made a number of important prescriptions to mainstream disaster risk reduction into research papers, the process of erik essays, development. The prescriptions were broadly divided into papers, three categories:

I. Policy guidelines at macro level to inform and guide the preparation and implementation of development plans-across sectors. II. Erikson Essays? Operational guidelines for integrating disaster management practices into development plans and programmes, and. III. Specific developmental schemes for prevention and mitigation of disasters. The significant initiatives on disaster management taken during the Plan period included the following: i. The Disaster Management Act, 2005 was enacted for establishing requisite institutional mechanisms for drawing up and monitoring the implementation of disaster management plans, and for undertaking a holistic, coordinated, and prompt response to any disaster situation. ii.

Setting up of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) as an apex body responsible for laying down of policies, plans and guidelines on papers, disaster management so as to ensure timely and effective response to disasters. iii. Equals Pages? The guidelines on management of earthquake, chemical disasters, and chemical (industrial) disasters were finalised during the Plan period. iv. Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Mizoram, Puducherry, Punjab and discussion papers, Uttar Pradesh have constituted State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs). The other states and UTs are in the process of self assessment, constituting the same. v. An eight battalion-strong National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) was set up comprising 144 specialised response teams on various types of disasters of which around 72 are for nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) disasters. vi. Revamping of the civil defence set-up to strengthen local efforts for disaster preparedness and effective response.

Fire services also strengthened and modernised to a multi-hazard response force. vii. A comprehensive Human Resource Plan for disaster management was developed. viii. Inclusion of disaster management in the curriculum of cces, middle and secondary school education. The subject has also been included in the post-induction and in-service training of civil and police officers. Modules have also been identified to include disaster management aspects in the course curriculum for engineering, architecture, and medical degrees.

ix. The National Institute for Disaster Management (NIDM) was established as the apex training institute for research questioons disaster management in India. x. Research Papers? Model-building by-laws for town and country planning legislations, land use zonation, development control legislations were finalised. xi. The Bureau of Indian Standards issued building codes for construction of different types of buildings in different seismic zones in essays India. The National Building Code was also revised, taking into consid­eration the natural hazards and risks of various regions of India. xii. Implementation of the National Programme for Capacity Building of discussion, Engineers in Earthquake Risk Management to train 10,000 engineers and 10,000 architects on safe construction techniques and architectural practices. xiii. A web-enabled centralised inventory of resources was developed to minimise response time in emergencies. Over 1, 10,000 records from 600 districts have already been uploaded.

xiv. Sale construction practices and “dos” and “don’ts” for various hazards were also disseminated for erikson essays creating public awareness. Eleventh Plan Strategies and Initiatives : The Eleventh Plan (2008-2013) aims at consolidating the entire process of disaster management by giving impetus to projects and programmes that develop and nurture the cces research discussion, culture of safety and integration of disaster prevention and mitigation into the development process. To assist the Planning Commission in appraisal of erik erikson, projects, broad and generic guide­lines which are not disaster or theme specific have to discussion be adopted. Conceptualisation of hazard scenarios and associated vulnerability and risk assessments in a given situation will necessarily have to depend on available maps, master plans and building and land use regulations, National Building Code of India, and the various Safety Standards and deadline, Codes of the Bureau of Indian Standards. The guidelines will cover the following aspects in the Eleventh Plan: i. Multi-hazard prone area/district recognised by the NDMA will be reported in cces papers the revised National Building Code of India of the Bureau of Indian Standards.

ii. A project/scheme should be based on a detailed hazard and risk assessment and wherever required, environmental clearance will also be taken. iii. All major stages of 1000 essay, project/scheme development, namely, plan­ning, site investigations and designs, will be subject to a process of rigorous peer review and will be accordingly certified. iv. All schemes for cces papers generating basic input data for scholarships w o essays hazard and vulnerability impact analysis to be made operational. v. Mainstreaming disaster reduction into already approved projects in cces research discussion papers sectors of scholarships w o, education, housing, infrastructure, urban development, and the like. Design of school buildings under the programme would include hazard resistant features, in multi-hazard prone (earthquake, cyclone, flood), high-risk areas.

Similarly, existing infrastructure like bridges and roads will also be strengthened and upgraded to mitigate disaster at a subsequent stage. Outside the discussion papers, framework of Plan schemes, many innovative measures will also be adopted to encourage disaster risk reduction measures in the corporate sector, non-government organisations, and among individuals. Fiscal measures like rebates on income and the specific must to be researched, funded, supported or opposed,, property tax for retrofitting unsafe buildings, compulsory risk insurance for bank loan on all types of properties will also be introduced to discussion papers mobilise resources for safe construction and retrofitting of Trace through which defined, analyzed, researched, or opposed, and finally passed and implemented., existing constructions in all disaster prone areas. Cces Discussion? Many innovative measures for promoting public-private-community partnership for disaster risk reduction will also be taken up during the Plan period. An “Extended Disaster Risk Mitigation Project” has been identified for erikson essays being taken up for preparation of a ‘Project Report’ during the Eleventh Plan. Cces Research Discussion? This will be supplemented by activities under various other national/state level mitigation projects.

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TOEFL Prep Online Guides and Tips. The Writing section can be the most daunting section of the TOEFL. You’ll have 50 minutes to discussion papers write two complete essays that must meet multiple requirements and show a strong grasp of English. Knowing what graders are looking for malcolm x autobiography thesis, and reviewing TOEFL Writing samples can go a long way towards helping you get a high score on this section. This guide will go over both of the TOEFL Writing tasks, explain how they’re graded, go over a high-scoring TOEFL Writing sample for each essay type, and end with TOEFL Writing examples for you to analyze. The TOEFL Writing section is 50 minutes long (broken into two parts) and contains two tasks: Integrated Writing and Independent Writing.

It’s the discussion papers fourth and final section of the exam. You’ll type both essays on paper questioons the computer. The next two sections will explain the format and requirements of each of the writing tasks as well as how they will be scored. The Integrated Writing task requires you to use listening, reading, and writing skills. Research. For this task, you’ll have three minutes to read a short passage, then you’ll listen to a short (approximately two-minute long) audio clip of a speaker discussing the same topic the 1000 word essay many written passage covers.

You’ll have 20 minutes to plan and write a response that references both of these sources in order to answer the question . You won’t discuss your own opinion. During the writing time, you’ll be able to look at the written passage again, but you won’t be able to re-hear the audio clip. You’ll be able to take notes while you listen to it though. The suggested response length for this task is 150-225 words. By the way: we have created the world's best online TOEFL course that automatically identifies and improves your weaknesses on the TOEFL. Want to get personal feedback on cces discussion papers your Speaking? Confused about Reading? PrepScholar guides you, step by step to conquer TOEFL. I want to be clear - you don't NEED a TOEFL course to get a great TOEFL score. But we believe PrepScholar is the word essay many world's best TOEFL course right now , especially if you are nervous about the TOEFL and have struggled to cces research papers increase your score and don't know how to improve anymore.

For this essay, you’ll be graded on the quality of your writing as well as how well your response represents the main points of the audio clip and written passage and how they relate to each other. Each essay receives a score from 0-5. For both essay types, you can check out the complete rubric used for official grading. Below are key points from the Integrated Writing rubric. (You can view complete rubric for both essays here.) Successfully selects the important information from the erikson essays lecture. Coherently and accurately presents information from both the lecture and the reading. Research Papers. Well organized with few language errors. Generally good in selecting the important information from the lecture and reading.

May have minor omission, inaccuracy, vagueness, or imprecision of some content. More frequent or noticeable minor language errors. It conveys only vague, global, unclear, or somewhat imprecise information about the lecture and reading. Key points may be missing. Erikson Essays. Errors of cces research, usage and/or grammar may be more frequent and obscure meanings. Contains some relevant information from the malcolm thesis lecture, but is marked by significant language difficulties or by significant omission or inaccuracy of important ideas. Provides little or no meaningful or relevant coherent content from the lecture. The language level of the response is research, so low that it is difficult to derive meaning.

Merely copies sentences from the reading, rejects the topic or is not connected to w o the topic, is written in a foreign language,or is blank. For the Independent Writing task, you’ll have receive a question on a particular topic or issue. You’ll have 30 minutes to plan and write a response to that topic that explains your opinion on it. You’ll need to cces research papers give reasons that support your decision. Scholarships. It’s recommended that your response to this task be at least 300 words. You’ll be graded on how well you develop your ideas, how well your essay is organized, and how accurately you use English to express your ideas. Effectively addresses the topic and cces task. Erik. Is well organized and developed. Displays strong and consistent language skills with minimal errors. Addresses the topic and task well, though some points may not be fully elaborated. Is generally well organized and well developed.

Occasional noticeable minor errors in cces discussion papers, structure, word form, or use of idiomatic language that do not interfere with meaning. Addresses the self deadline topic and task using somewhat developed explanations, exemplifications, and/or details. Discussion. May demonstrate inconsistent facility in sentence formation and word choice that may result in lack of clarity and occasionally obscure meaning. Limited development in response to the topic and task. Lack of details to support or illustrate generalizations in response to the task. An accumulation of erik, errors in sentence structure and/or usage. Little or no detail, or irrelevant specifics, or questionable responsiveness to the task. Serious and frequent errors in cces research discussion, sentence structure or usage. Merely copies sentences from the scholarships w o reading, rejects the topic or is not connected to the topic, is written in a foreign language,or is blank. Top-Scoring TOEFL Integrated Writing Sample. Below is an research discussion official TOEFL Integrated Writing sample question and as well as an essay response that received a score of 5. It includes a written passage, the transcript of a conversation (which would be an audio recording on the actual TOEFL, and the essay prompt.

After the Trace through a policy travel in order analyzed, supported and finally prompt is an example of a top-scoring essay. You can read the essay in full, then read our comments on what exactly about this essay gives it a top score. Integrated Writing Example Prompt. You have three minutes to read the cces research discussion papers following passage and take notes. In many organizations, perhaps the best way to approach certain new projects is to assemble a group of people into scholarships, a team. Having a team of people attack a project offers several advantages.

First of discussion, all, a group of people has a wider range of essay pages, knowledge, expertise, and skills than any single individual is likely to possess. Also, because of the numbers of people involved and cces discussion the greater resources they possess, a group can work more quickly in response to the task assigned to it and can come up with highly creative solutions to problems and issues. Sometimes these creative solutions come about because a group is more likely to word equals many pages make risky decisions that an individual might not undertake. This is because the group spreads responsibility for a decision to research all the word essay pages members and thus no single individual can be held accountable if the decision turns out to be wrong. Taking part in a group process can be very rewarding for members of the team. Team members who have a voice in making a decision will no doubt feel better about carrying out the work that is entailed by that decision than they might doing work that is imposed on cces them by others. Also, the individual team member has a much better chance to “shine,” to get his or her contributions and ideas not only recognized but recognized as highly significant, because a team’s overall results can be more far-reaching and have greater impact than what might have otherwise been possible for the person to accomplish or contribute working alone. Now listen to scholarships w o essays part of a lecture on cces discussion the topic you just read about.

(Professor) Now I want to tell you about what one company found when it decided that it would turn over some of its new projects to the specific process which must supported and finally teams of people, and make the team responsible for planning the projects and papers getting the work done. Scholarships W O Essays. After about six months, the cces company took a look at how well the erikson essays teams performed. Cces Discussion Papers. On virtually every team, some members got almost a “free ride” … they didn’t contribute much at all, but if their team did a good job, they nevertheless benefited from the recognition the team got. And what about scholarships w o essays group members who worked especially well and who provided a lot of insight on problems and issues? Well…the recognition for a job well done went to cces research discussion papers the group as a whole, no names were named. So it won’t surprise you to learn that when the real contributors were asked how they felt about the group process, their attitude was just the opposite of what the reading predicts. Another finding was that some projects just didn’t move very quickly. Trace The Specific Which A Policy Travel Funded, Supported And Finally Passed. Why? Because it took so long to reach consensus…it took many, many meetings to build the agreement among group members about how they would move the project along. On the other hand, there were other instances where one or two people managed to become very influential over what their group did.

Sometimes when those influencers said “That will never work” about an idea the group was developing, the idea was quickly dropped instead of research discussion papers, being further discussed. And then there was another occasion when a couple influencers convinced the group that a plan of theirs was “highly creative.” And even though some members tried to warn the rest of the group that the project was moving in directions that might not work, they were basically ignored by other group members. Can you guess the ending to *this* story? When the project failed, the process a policy must travel in order defined, funded, supported or opposed, blame was placed on all the members of the cces research papers group. You have 20 minutes to plan and write your response. Your response will be judged on the basis of the quality of your writing and on malcolm x autobiography thesis how well your response presents the points in cces research discussion papers, the lecture and their relationship to the reading passage. Typically, an w o essays effective response will be 150 to 225 words.

We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at getting your target TOEFL score. Download it for free now: Summarize the cces discussion points made in the lecture you just heard, explaining how they cast doubt on self assessment paper points made in the reading. TOEFL Integrated Writing Sample Essay. The lecturer talks about research conducted by a firm that used the cces group system to handle their work. He says that the theory stated in the passage was very different and somewhat inaccurate when compared to what happened for real. First, some members got free rides. That is, some didn’t work hard but gotrecognition for the success nontheless. This also indicates that people who worked hard was not given recognition they should have got. In other words, they weren’t given the oppotunity to “shine”. Trace Process Through Which A Policy Must Travel In Order Analyzed, Funded, Supported Or Opposed, And Implemented.. This derectly contradicts what the passage indicates.

Second, groups were slow in progress. The passage says that groups are nore responsive than individuals because of the number of people involved and research discussion their aggregated resources. However, the speaker talks about thesis how the firm found out cces papers that groups were slower than individuals in dicision making. Groups needed more time for meetings, which are neccesary procceedures in decision making. This was another part where experience contradicted theory.

Third, influetial people might emerge, and lead the group towards glory or failure. If the influent people are going in the right direction there would be no problem. Essays. But in cases where they go in the wrong direction, there is nobody that has enough influence to counter the decision made. In other words, the group might turn into a dictatorship, with the influential party as the leader, and research discussion might be less flexible in the specific process which a policy must analyzed, or opposed, and finally, thinking. They might become one-sided, and thus fail to succeed. There are three key things this TOEFL example essay does that results in its high score:

Clearly presents main points Contrasts lecture and reading points Few grammatical/spelling errors. This essay clearly organizes the three main points made in the lecture, which is what the first part of the research prompt asked for. (“Summarize the points made in self assessment paper, the lecture you just heard.”) There is one paragraph for cces research discussion, each point, and the point is clearly stated within the first sentence of the paragraph followed by specific details from the lecture. Scholarships Essays. This organization makes it easy to follow the research discussion papers writer’s thinking and see that they understood the lecture. Additionally, the essay clearly contrasts points made in erik erikson, the lecture with points made in the reading. Each main paragraph includes an research discussion papers example of how the two are different, and the writer makes these differences clear by using words and phrases such as “however” and “this directly contradicts.” Stating these differences answers the second part of the 1000 essay prompt (“explain how they cast doubt on points made in the reading”) and shows that the writer understood both the lecture and cces discussion reading well enough to differentiate between the two. Finally, there are only a few minor spelling and grammar error s, the most noticeable of which is the incorrect use of the word “influent” in the final paragraph (it should be “influential”), and they do not detract from the malcolm x autobiography meaning of the essay. This writer shows a strong grasp of the English language, a key TOEFL skill. This essay shows that the writer understood the main points of cces papers, both the lecture and the reading well enough to both describe them and contrast them. That, along with the relatively few mechanical errors, gives the essay a top score.

Top-Scoring Independent TOEFL Writing Sample. Below is an official Independent Writing prompt and top-scoring sample essay. Beneath the essay we analyze what about the essay resulted in it receiving a top score. Independent Writing Example Prompt. Directions Read the research paper questioons question below. You have 30 minutes to plan, write, and revise your essay.

Typically, an effective essay will contain a minimum of 300 words. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Always telling the truth is the most important consideration in any relationship. Use specific reasons and research discussion papers examples to support your answer. Want to improve your TOEFL score by 15 points? We have the world's leading TOEFL course. Built by world-class instructors from Harvard and x autobiography MIT, the program combines machine learning and human feedback to identify the fastest way to hit your target TOEFL score. Try our 5-day full access trial for research, free: Independent TOEFL Writing Sample Essay. the traditional virtue of telling the truth in all situations is increasingly doubted by many in today’s world. many believe that telling the truth is 1000 equals pages, not always the best policy when dealing with people. moreover, the line of a “truth” is becoming more and more vague. this essay will explore the importance of telling the truth in research papers, relationships between people. we all understand that often the truth is offending and may not be a very nice thing to both hear or say. lies or white lies often have their advantages. the manipulation of malcolm x autobiography thesis, white lies is the most obvious the business world. how many times have we heard that some product is “the finest” or “the cheapest”? how many times have we heard that products have such and such “magical functions”? advertising is about persuasion, and many would agree that if a company is to research discussion tell the absolute truth about it’s products, no one would be interested in even having a look at the products.

the same logic applies to human relationships. Erikson. if your friend had worn a newly purchased dress on cces discussion her birthday and energetically asked you if it was a worthy buy, would you freely express your opinion that you had never seen a dress as the one she’s currently wearing? and spoil her birthday? unarguably, hiding(entirely or particially) the truth in some situations can be quite handy indeed. confrontations and disputes can seemingly be avoided. however, there is always the risk factor of the truth emerging sooner or later when telling an untruth. the scholarships w o essays basic trust in any relationships(businessman/customer, friends, parents/children) will be blotched, and would have an impact on the future relationship between both parties. the story of the cces research discussion papers “the boy who cried wolf” fully illustrates the consequenes of telling untruths. no one will believe you when you’re telling the truth. your word will have no weighting. in addition, another “bad factor” of telling untruths is that you have absolutely no control over when the scholarships truth(of previous untruths) will emerge. untruths breed pain in both parties: tears when the truth is uncovered after a period of time; fear and the burden of sharing a “secret”. in the long run, it seems that hiding the truth is not beneficial to either party. everyone hates betrayal. even if it is the trend to occasionally hide the truth in relationships, it is strongly recommended that not to follow that trend as the risk and the consequences of the truth unfolded overwhelms the minimal advantages one can derive from cces research discussion papers, not telling the Trace process through a policy in order researched, supported truth. afterall, it is understood that relationships are founded on “trust” which goes hand in hand with “truth”. indeed telling the research discussion papers truth is the most important consideration in any relationship between people. Erikson. always. There are three key things this essay does that results in cces research discussion papers, its high score, and each is explained in more detail below. Is well organized Uses specific examples Few grammatical/spelling errors. The essay, like the first one, is well organized. The writer’s position is w o essays, clear within the first few sentences, and the rest of the essay elaborates on research discussion that position.

Each paragraph begins with a new major point that is then explained. Scholarships W O Essays. This logical flow of cces, ideas is easy for readers to follow and 1000 word essay equals shows that the writer knows how to set up a clear argument. Another reason the essay received a top score is cces research discussion papers, because the writer used specific examples to make her point. By using specific examples, such as a friend buying a new outfit and erik essays asking your opinion and phrases businesses use to cces research discussion sell products, the 1000 essay equals pages writer makes her argument stronger and research more concrete. Finally, despite the lack of capitalization throughout the erikson essay, there are few spelling and grammatical errors, and the ones that do exist don’t detract from the discussion meaning of the x autobiography essay or make it confusing to understand.

This shows a strong command of English and research papers the ability to Trace the specific which a policy must to be defined, analyzed, researched, funded, and finally write in-depth essays that are clear and get their point across. Where to Find More TOEFL Writing Samples. Below are a list of other places, official and unofficial, where you can find TOEFL Writing examples. You can use these examples to get a better idea of what a high-scoring essay looks like and what graders are looking for on the Writing section. Official resources are always the best to cces papers use since you can be sure the essay prompts are accurate and the sample essays were accurately scored. TOEFL iBT Writing Sample Responses. This resource contains several sample essays (including the two sample responses used above).

The essays from on questioons this site received different scores as well as analysis of why they received the discussion score they did. Trace The Specific Which A Policy Must Defined, Analyzed, Researched, Funded, Supported Or Opposed, Passed. This can be helpful if you want more information on, say, what differentiates an essay that got a “5” from an essay that got a “4”. Want to papers improve your TOEFL score by 15+ points? Check out our bes online TOEFL course. Paper. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your TOEFL score by 15 points or more. Check out cces discussion our 5-day free trial now: This is scholarships w o essays, a complete practice TOEFL, but it does include several sample essays along with score explanations so you can get a more in-depth look at how and why different essays received the scores they did. There are numerous unofficial TOEFL writing samples out there, of varying quality. Below are two of the best. This site has several dozen sample essays for both the Integrated and Independent Writing topics. Cces. There’s no scoring analysis, but you do get a good variety of essay topics and essay samples so that you can get a sense of how to approach different essay prompts.

Good Luck TOEFL has seven sample Independent Writing essays (no Integrated Writing). There’s no scoring analysis, but the essays and prompts are similar to official TOEFL essay topics. Review: Analyzing TOEFL Writing Examples. Writing can be a particularly tricky TOEFL section, and seeing TOEFL Writing samples can go a long way to helping you feel more confident. For TOEFL Writing, you’ll need to write two essays, the Integrated Writing Task and the Independent Writing Task. Looking over erik the rubrics for both these essays and discussion papers understanding what graders will be looking for scholarships, can help you understand what to include in your own essays. Both essays are scored on a scale of 0-5. Top-scoring essays generally need to have good organization, specific examples, answer the cces discussion papers prompt completely, and minor spelling and grammar errors. It can also be useful to review other TOEFL writing samples to get a better idea of what a great TOEFL essay looks like.

Looking for more information on the TOEFL Writing section? Learn all the tips you need to know in order to ace TOEFL Writing! Looking for a great TOEFL prep book? A good prep book can be the questioons most important study tool you use, and papers we have information on all the best TOEFL prep books you should consider. Ready to improve your TOEFL score by 15 points? We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at w o improving your score.

Download it for research, free now: Christine graduated from Michigan State University with degrees in Environmental Biology and Geography and received her Master's from Duke University. In high school she scored in 1000 word equals, the 99th percentile on research papers the SAT and was named a National Merit Finalist. Essays. She has taught English and biology in several countries. View all posts by Christine Sarikas. Get FREE tips to start mastering the TOEFL today. Join our Facebook TOEFL Study Group! Read Our Top 10 Favorite TOEFL Guides. Applying to US Schools (6) English Language Learning (3) TOEFL General Info (26) TOEFL Listening (3) TOEFL Logistics (5) TOEFL Prep (18) TOEFL Reading (4) TOEFL Speaking (6) TOEFL Writing (7) © PrepScholar 2013-2017. Cces. All rights reserved.

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1246 Words Essay on Youth and Politics in cces papers, India. People between the age of 15 and 35 constitute youth. Those in their teens among the youth are said to be of tender age. They are not considered experienced and knowledgeable enough to understand the complex world of politics . That is why some people believe that the youth should not take part in politics. But when the government reduced the age of eligibility for scholarships w o essays, casting vote from 21 to 18, the message was quite clear: that the youth should actively take part in research discussion, the process of elections whereby the essays candidates are elected to form governments at the state as well as centre.

India is the biggest democracy in the world. The real power lies in the hands of the people who elect the people who rule the country. The basic principle of democracy is that it should have a wide participation by the people. The more is the percentage of voters out of the total population of the country, the stronger is the base of the democracy because the research mandate given in the elections would have a popular sport. By making the age of casting of research paper, vote as 18, the government brought crores of people within the ambit of active participation in elections thus giving a broad base to the democratic processes. Research Discussion? It also gave the message that our youth is Trace the specific process a policy must passed and implemented. mature and wise enough to understand their responsibility and they would give their mandate after carefully considering candidates#8217; capabilities. Being young, they are not swayed by the old systems of caste, creed and discussion papers, other orthodoxy which had been the bane of Trace the specific which a policy must travel defined, analyzed, funded, supported and finally and implemented., Indian politics for quite some time in cces papers, the post-independence era. The government also seemed to have realised that it was important for India#8217;s future to induct the youth in the democratic process at an early age.

After all it is the assessment paper youth who ultimately will become the stalwarts in politics and one day will hold the reins in their hands. There has been much debate and discussion in various circles across the country on discussion papers whether the youth should take part in politics. Image Source : upload.wikimedia.org. Many people believed that the equals youngsters being of a tender age do not fully comprehend the intrigues connected with politics for cces research discussion papers, which it is often called a dirty game. If the youth get entangled in x autobiography, political activities, they will lose direction and purpose. Another fear was that the research discussion papers politics is dominated by middle-aged and old people. If the youth also enter the arena, there will be an atmosphere of rivalry. Belonging to different generations, there is a possibility of generation gap, misunderstanding and even rejection of one age group of the other those who of the opinion that those among the youngsters who are students and at the threshold of some career will suffer immensely if they go astray. If they start missing their classes and paper deadline, take part in meetings and rallies, they will be left behind in their career. Being immature and inexperienced about the demands of life they may put to a great loss in their life at a later stage after having lost valuable time as students.

It is necessary to have a look at the situation prevailing in colleges and universities where elections are held every year for the posts of President, Secretary, Treasurer and other office bearers. The atmosphere is cces papers full of political rivalries and intrigues near the elections. There is canvassing campaign among the students presenting the qualities and plans of the respective candidates. The university elections have assumed huge importance as national parties like Congress, BJP and others have started taking active part in these elections and fielding their candidates, rather giving their party label to the candidates. The people who not like these elections to be given such a huge dimension have based their views on the fact that several times these elections have turned ugly with incidents of violence. The colleges and the universities become battlefields with rival groups of students attacking each other. Heavy police deployment at self paper times is unable to research discussion papers stop them because the police hesitate to use force against the tender-aged students. But the problem is that many bad elements are always ready to take advantage of through which must travel in order to be researched, or opposed,, such volatile situations. Cces Research Discussion? They abet innocent youth to use violent methods to achieve their ends. Process Through Which In Order Defined, Supported Passed? The students often are not aware that they are being taken advantage of. Some idlers also join the election campaign to get some name and fame and also some money.

It becomes difficult for discussion, the authorities to distinguish between the genuine campaigners and goonda elements. If some action is taken against anyone, the students go on strike whereby the cause of education and their own career is greatly harmed. That is why people say that the students should stay away from politics. Their duty is to acquire knowledge, get education and seek some good career to become self-dependent and thesis, a support for their parents. Apart from the college and university campuses, other places in towns and cities, especially the public places become centres of discussion on politics.

Many idlers gather there and make various kinds of strategies and plans. India is cces research a place where some kind of election or the other is always nearby-from Parliament elections to paper Panchayat elections. Therefore these idlers are never short of material for discussion. Some of them have access to local heads, MLAs, village chief, block presidents and members of Zila Parishad. These politicians use these idle youths to grind their political axe. They are often paid to become their informers and research discussion papers, act according to their advice.

As such the atmosphere in villages, towns and small cities is w o always soaked in what is known as local politics. Few people think about doing some productive work for the benefit of society and country. Politics teaches the youth to steal the limelight by hook or crook and encash it in some forthcoming election. The youth also include people who are not students, but are engaged in some job or enterprise. For them to take part in politics is more of a matter of interest rather than getting some position in a political party. Only a small number among them ever give a serious thought of becoming a party worker, attending meetings and cces papers, taking part in campaigns. However, in our country there is a cult of succession in politics. In Nehru family, the youth have been inducted in active politics-from Indira Gandhi to Rahul and Priyanka Gandhi. Some people oppose this cult while others hail it. There can be a long discussion on whether the politicians should be allowed to sustain this cult.

But we can say with a considerable degree of consensus that the young, adults or old and established politicians should not be stopped from taking part in active politics until they do not take undue advantage of their parentage and position. Scholarships? Being the citizens of a democratic nation they have every right to become active politicians. They better understand the political atmosphere in the country and are well aware of the demands of politics. The youth inducted into politics have matured into great leaders. Young people are not only enthusiastic and energetic but are also full of new ideas. Research Papers? They are able to instil freshness in the political affairs of Trace process a policy travel in order to be defined, analyzed, supported and finally, their respective region as well as the research nation. We can conclude by saying that today#8217;s youth are highly intelligent and word equals, educated. They have a high awareness level. If they take part in politics, they will enrich it with their new ideas.

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Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) Discussion Papers

essay on cces discussion dreams dismiss for 28 days 1 year info. [NOTE: This was the last work that Paine ever gave to the press. It appeared in New York in 1807 with the following title: An Examination of the Passages in the New Testament, quoted from the Old and called Prophecies concerning Jesus Christ. To which is prefixed an Essay on Dream, showing by what operation of the mind a Dream is produced in sleep, and applying the same to assessment paper the account of Dreams in the New Testament. With an cces papers Appendix containing my private thoughts of a Future State. And Remarks on the specific through which in order defined, funded, supported and finally passed and implemented. the Contradictory Doctrine in the Books of Matthew and discussion, Mark.

By Thomas Paine, New York: Printed for the Author. pp. 68. This work is made up from the self assessment deadline unpublished Part III, of the Age of Reason, and the answer to the Bishop of Landaff. In the Introductory chapter, on Dream, he would seem to have partly utilized an earlier essay, and cces research discussion, this is the research only part of the work previously printed. Nearly all of it was printed in Paris, in cces discussion papers, English, soon after Paine's departure for America. This little pamphlet, of x autobiography, which the only copy I have seen or heard of research papers, is in the Bodleian Library, has never been mentioned by any of Paine's editors, and perhaps he himself was not aware of its having been printed. Its title is: Extract from the M.S. Third Part of Thomas Paine's Age of Reason.

Chapter the Second: Article, Dream. Paris: Printed for malcolm x autobiography thesis M. Chateau, 1803. It is discussion papers, possible that it was printed for private circulation. I have compared this Paris pamphlet closely with an original copy of essays, Paine's own edition, (New York, 1807) with results indicated in footnotes to the Essay, Dr. Clair J. Grece, of Redhill, has shown me a copy of the papers Examination which Paine presented to his (Dr. Grece's) uncle, Daniel Constable, in New York, July 21, 1807, with the prediction, It is too much for the priests, and self deadline, they will not touch it.

It is rudely stitched in brown paper cover, and without the Preface and the Essay on Dream. It would appear from a note, which I quote at the beginning of the research discussion papers Examination, by an early American editor that Paine detached that part as the only fragment he wished to erik erikson be circulated. This pamphlet, with some omissions, was published in London, 1811, as Part III. of the Age of Reason, by Daniel Isaacs Eaton, for which he was sentenced to eighteen months imprisonment, and to stand in the pillory for one hour in each month. This punishment drew from Shelley his celebrated letter to Lord Ellenborough, who had given a scandalously prejudiced charge to the jury. -- Editor.] IT is the duty of every man, as far as his ability extends, to detect and expose delusion and error.

But nature has not given to everyone a talent for the purpose; and among those to whom such a talent is given, there is often a want of disposition or of courage to do it. The world, or more properly speaking, that small part of it called christendom, or the christian world, has been amused for more than a thousand years with accounts of Prophecies in the Old- Testament about the coming of the person called Jesus Christ, and thousands of sermons have been preached, and volumes written, to make man believe it. In the following treatise I have examined all the passages in the New-Testament, quoted from the Old, and called prophecies concerning Jesus Christ, and I find no such thing as a prophecy of any such person, and I deny there are any. The passages all relate to circumstances the Jewish nation was in at the time they were written or spoken, and not to anything that was or was not to happen in the world several hundred years afterwards; and I have shown what the circumstances were to which the passages apply or refer. I have given chapter and verse for every thing I have said, and have not gone out of the books of the cces Old and New Testament for evidence that the passages are not prophecies of the malcolm thesis person called Jesus Christ. The prejudice of unfounded belief, often degenerates into the prejudice of custom, and becomes at last rank hypocrisy. When men, from custom or fashion or any worldly motive, profess or pretend to believe what they do not believe, nor can give any reason for believing, they unship the helm of their morality, and being no longer honest to their own minds they feel no moral difficulty in being unjust to research papers others. It is from the influence of this vice, hypocrisy, that we see so many church-and-meeting-going professors and pretenders to religion so full of trick and deceit in their dealings, and so loose in essay pages, the performance of their engagements that they are not to be trusted further than the laws of the cces discussion papers country will bind them. Morality has no hold on their minds, no restraint on their actions.

One set of 1000 equals many pages, preachers make salvation to consist in believing. They tell their congregations that if they believe in Christ their sins shall be forgiven. This, in the first place, is an encouragement to sin, in a similar manner as when a prodigal young fellow is told his father will pay all his debts, he runs into debt the faster, and becomes the cces papers more extravagant. Erik Essays! Daddy, says he, pays all, and on he goes: just so in the other case, Christ pays all, and on goes the sinner. In the next place, the research discussion papers doctrine these men preach is not true. The New Testament rests itself for credibility and 1000, testimony on research what are called prophecies in the Old-Testament of the person called Jesus Christ; and 1000 word essay many, if there are no such things as prophecies of any such person in the Old-Testament, the New-Testament is a forgery of the Councils of research papers, Nice and Laodicea, and the faith founded thereon delusion and falsehood. [NOTE by scholarships w o PAINE: The councils of Nice and Laodicea were held about 350 years after the time Christ is said to have lived; and the books that now compose the New Testament, were then voted for by YEAS and NAYS, as we now vote a law.

A great many that were offered had a majority of nays, and were rejected. This is the way the New-Testament came into being. -- Author.] Another set of preachers tell their congregations that God predestinated and selected, from all eternity, a certain number to be saved, and a certain number to be damned eternally. If this were true, the 'day of Judgment' IS PAST: their preaching is in papers, vain, and they had better work at some useful calling for their livelihood. This doctrine, also, like the former, hath a direct tendency to erik demoralize mankind. Cces! Can a bad man be reformed by telling him, that if he is x autobiography, one of those who was decreed to be damned before he was born his reformation will do him no good; and cces research papers, if he was decreed to be saved, he will be saved whether he believes it or not? For this is the result of the doctrine. Such preaching and such preachers do injury to the moral world.

They had better be at the plough. As in research paper, my political works my motive and object have been to give man an elevated sense of his own character, and cces research discussion papers, free him from the slavish and superstitious absurdity of monarchy and hereditary government, so in my publications on religious subjects my endeavors have been directed to bring man to a right use of the reason that God has given him, to impress on him the the specific process through travel in order defined, analyzed, funded, supported passed and implemented. great principles of divine morality, justice, mercy, and a benevolent disposition to all men, and to all creatures, and to inspire in cces research papers, him a spirit of trust, confidence, and consolation in his creator, unshackled by the fables of Trace process through which travel to be funded, supported and implemented., books pretending to be 'the word of God.' In order to understand the nature of cces research papers, Dream, or of that which passes in questioons, ideal vision during a state of sleep, it is first necessary to cces research papers understand the composition and decomposition of the human mind. The three great faculties of the mind are IMAGINATION, JUDGMENT, and MEMORY. Malcolm X Autobiography Thesis! Every action of the mind comes under one or the other of these faculties. [NOTE: This sentence is not in cces, Paris edition. -- Editor.] In a state of wakefulness, as in the day-time, these three faculties are all active; but that is thesis, seldom the case in sleep, and cces research discussion, never perfectly: and Trace the specific through which must travel in order defined, passed and implemented., this is the cause that our dreams are not so regular and rational as our waking thoughts. The seat of that collection of powers or faculties that constitute what is research papers, called the mind, is in the brain. There is not, and cannot be, any visible demonstration of this anatomically, but accidents happening to 1000 essay many living persons shew it to be so. An injury done to the brain by a fracture of the skull, will sometimes change a wise man into papers, a childish idiot, -- a being without a mind. But so careful has nature been of that Sanctum Sanctorum of man, the brain, that of all the external accidents to which humanity is subject, this occurs the word most seldom. But we often see it happening by long and habitual intemperance. Whether those three faculties occupy distinct apartments of the brain, is known only to that ALMIGHTY POWER that formed and organized it.

We can see the research external effects of muscular motion in x autobiography, all the members of the body, though its premium mobile, or first moving cause, is unknown to man. Our external motions are sometimes the effect of intention, sometimes not. If we are sitting and intend to rise, or standing and intend to sit or to walk, the research papers limbs obey that intention as if they heard the order given. But we make a thousand motions every day, and that as well waking as sleeping, that have no prior intention to direct them. Each member acts as if it had a will or mind of its own. Man governs the whole when he pleases to govern, but in the interim the several parts, like little suburbs, govern themselves without consulting the sovereign. And all these motions, whatever be the generating cause, are external and visible. But with respect to the brain, no ocular observation can be made upon it.

All is the specific process through a policy in order defined, analyzed, or opposed, and finally, mystery; all is research papers, darkness in that womb of thought. Whether the brain is assessment paper deadline, a mass of matter in cces research discussion, continual rest whether it has a vibrating pulsative motion, or a heaving and falling motion like matter in fermentation; whether different parts of the brain have different motions according to the faculty that is erikson, employed, be it the imagination, the judgment, or the research discussion memory, man knows nothing of. He knows not the cause of research, his own wit. His own brain conceals it from cces papers, him. Comparing invisible by assessment visible things, as metaphysical can sometimes be compared to physical things, the operations of these distinct and several faculties have some resemblance to a watch.

The main spring which puts all in motion corresponds to the imagination; the cces discussion pendulum which corrects and regulates that motion, corresponds to the judgment; and the hand and dial, like the memory, record the operation. Now in proportion as these several faculties sleep, slumber, or keep awake, during the continuance of self assessment paper, a dream, in research, that proportion the dream will be reasonable or frantic, remembered or forgotten. If there is any faculty in mental man that never sleeps, it is erik erikson, that volatile thing the imagination. Cces Research Discussion Papers! The case is essay, different with the judgment and memory. The sedate and sober constitution of the judgment easily disposes it to rest; and as to the memory, it records in silence and is active only when it is called upon. That the judgment soon goes to sleep may be perceived by our sometimes beginning to discussion papers dream before we are fully asleep ourselves. Some random thought runs in the mind, and we start, as it were, into recollection that we are dreaming between sleeping and waking. [If a pendulum of a watch by any accident becomes displaced, that it can no longer control and regulate the elastic force of the spring, the works are instantly thrown into confusion, and continue so as long as the spring continues to have force. In like manner] [NOTE: The words within crotchers are only in the Paris edition. In the New York edition (1807) the next word If begins a new paragraph. -- Editor.] if the judgment sleeps whilst the imagination keeps awake, the dream will be a riotous assemblage of 1000 word, misshapen images and ranting ideas, and the more active the imagination is the wilder the dream will be. The most inconsistent and the most impossible things will appear right; because that faculty whose province it is to keep order is in a state of absence.

The master of the school is gone out and the boys are in an uproar. If the memory sleeps, we shall have no other knowledge of the cces dream than that we have dreamt, without knowing what it was about. Through Which A Policy Must In Order Defined, Or Opposed, And Finally Passed And Implemented.! In this case it is sensation rather than recollection that acts. The dream has given us some sense of pain or trouble, and cces discussion, we feel it as a hurt, rather than remember it as vision. If the memory slumbers we shall have a faint remembrance of the dream, and after a few minutes it will some-times happen that the principal passages of the dream will occur to us more fully. The cause of this is that the memory will sometimes continue slumbering or sleeping after we are awake ourselves, and that so fully, that it may and sometimes does happen, that we do not immediately recollect where we are, nor what we have been about, or have to do. But when the memory starts into wakefulness it brings the knowledge of these things back upon us like a flood of light, and x autobiography thesis, sometimes the dream with it. But the most curious circumstance of the mind in a state of dream, is the power it has to become the agent of every person, character and cces research discussion papers, thing of which it dreams. It carries on conversation with several, asks questions, hears answers, gives and receives information, and it acts all these parts itself.

Yet however various and eccentric the imagination may be in the creating of images and ideas, it cannot supply the place of memory with respect to things that are forgotten when we are awake. For example, if we have forgotten the name of thesis, a person, and dream of research, seeing him and asking him his name, he cannot tell it; for erik essays it is cces discussion papers, ourselves asking ourselves the question. But though the imagination cannot supply the place of real memory, it has the wild faculty of counterfeiting memory. It dreams of w o, persons it never knew, and talks to them as if it remembered them as old acquaintance. It relates circumstances that never happened, and tells them as if they had happened. It goes to places that never existed, and cces research papers, knows where all the streets and houses are, as if we had been there before. Research Paper Questioons! The scenes it creates are often as scenes remembered. It will sometimes act a dream within a dream, and, in the delusion of dreaming, tell a dream it never dreamed, and tell it as if it was from cces papers, memory.

It may also be remarked, that the imagination in a dream has no idea of time, as tune. It counts only by circumstances; and if a succession of circumstances pass in a dream that would require a great length of time to accomplish them, it will appear to the dreamer that a length of time equal thereto has passed also. As this is the state of the mind in a dream, it may rationally be said that every person is mad once in twenty-four hours, for were he to act in the day as he dreams in the night, he would be confined for a lunatic. In a state of equals, wakefulness, those three faculties being all active, and acting in unison, constitute the rational man. In dream it is otherwise, and, therefore, that state which is called insanity appears to be no other than a dismission of those faculties, and a cessation of the judgment during wakefulness, that we so often experience during sleep; and idiocity, into cces discussion, which some persons have fallen, is that cessation of all the faculties of which we can be sensible when we happen to wake before our memory. In this view of the mind, how absurd it is to place reliance upon dreams, and how much more absurd to essays make them a foundation for research discussion papers religion; yet the research belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, begotten by the Holy Ghost, a being never heard of before, stands on the foolish story of an papers old man's dream. And behold the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not thou to take unto thee Mary thy wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the w o Holy Ghost. -- Matt.

1. 20. After this we have the childish stories of three or four other dreams: about Joseph going into Egypt; about his coming back again; about this, and about that, and research papers, this story of w o, dreams has thrown Europe into a dream for more than a thousand years. All the research efforts that nature, reason, and conscience have made to awaken man from it, have been ascribed by priestcraft and superstition to the working of the devil, and malcolm thesis, had it not been for the American Revolution, which, by cces discussion papers establishing the universal right of conscience, [NOTE: The words right of are not in the Paris edition. -- Editor.] first opened the the specific process in order to be defined, or opposed, way to papers free discussion, and for the French Revolution that followed, this Religion of Dreams had continued to be preached, and that after it had ceased to be believed. Those who preached it and did not believe it, still believed the delusion necessary. They were not bold enough to Trace which a policy to be defined, analyzed, funded, supported and finally be honest, nor honest enough to be bold. [NOTE: The remainder of this essay, down to the last two paragraphs, though contained in the Paris pamphlet, was struck out of the essay by Paine when he published it in research discussion, America; it was restored by an American editor who got hold of the original manuscript, with the essays exception of two sentences which he supposed caused the author to reserve the nine paragraphs containing them. Cces Research Papers! It is probable, however, that this part was omitted as an interruption of the essay on Dream. The present Editor therefore concludes to insert the passage, without any omission, in x autobiography thesis, this footnote:] Every new religion, like a new play, requires a new apparatus of dresses and machinery, to fit the new characters it creates.

The story of research, Christ in the New Testament brings a new being upon the stage, which it calls the Holy Ghost; and the story of Abraham, the father of the Jews, in the Old Testament, gives existence to a new order of beings it calls Angels. There was no Holy Ghost before the time of Christ, nor Angels before the time of Abraham. We hear nothing of these winged gentlemen, till more than two thousand years, according to the Bible chronology, from the time they say the erik erikson essays heavens, the earth, and all therein were made. After this, they hop about as thick as birds in a grove. The first we hear of, pays his addresses to Hagar in the wilderness; then three of them visit Sarah; another wrestles a fall with Jacob; and these birds of passage having found their way to earth and research discussion papers, back, are continually coming and going. They eat and drink, and up again to heaven. What they do with the erik erikson essays food they carry away in cces papers, their bellies, the Bible does not tell us. Perhaps they do as the birds do, discharge it as they fly; for neither the scripture nor the church hath told us there are necessary houses for them in heaven.

One would think that a system loaded with such gross and vulgar absurdities as scripture religion is could never have obtained credit; yet we have seen what priestcraft and fanaticism could do, and credulity believe. From Angels in the Old Testament we get to prophets, to witches, to seers of visions, and essays, dreamers of dreams; and sometimes we are told, as in cces research discussion, 1 Sam. ix. 15, that God whispers in 1000 word, the ear. At other times we are not told how the impulse was given, or whether sleeping or waking. In 2 Sam. xxiv. Cces Discussion! 1, it is said, And again the anger of the lord was kindled against Israel, and he moved David against the specific which a policy in order to be researched, funded, supported passed and implemented., them to say, Go number Israel and Judah. And in 1 Chron. Research Discussion Papers! xxi. I, when the same story is again related, it is said, And Satan stood up against Israel, and moved David to number Israel. Whether this was done sleeping or waking, we are not told, but it seems that David, whom they call a man after God's own heart, did not know by what spirit he was moved; and as to the men called inspired penmen, they agree so well about the matter, that in thesis, one book they say that it was God, and in the other that it was the Devil. Yet this is trash that the church imposes upon the world as the WORD OF GOD; this is the collection of lies and contradictions called the HOLY BIBLE! this is the rubbish called REVEALED RELIGION! The idea that writers of the Old Testament had of a God was boisterous, contemptible, and vulgar.

They make him the Mars of the Jews, the fighting God of Israel, the conjuring God of discussion papers, their Priests and Prophets. They tell us as many fables of him as the Greeks told of Hercules. They pit him against Pharaoh, as it were to box with him, and Moses carries the challenge. 1000 Equals Many Pages! They make their God to say insultingly, I will get me honor upon cces research Pharaoh and upon all his Host, upon his chariots and upon his Horsemen. And that he may keep his word, they make him set a trap in the Red Sea, in the dead of the night, for Pharaoh, his host, and his horses, and erik erikson essays, drown them as a rat-catcher would do so many rats. Great honor indeed! the story of Jack the giant-killer is better told! They match him against the Egyptian magicians to conjure with them, and cces research papers, after hard conjuring on both sides (for where there is no great contest there is erikson, no great honor) they bring him off victorious. Cces! The first three essays are a dead match: each party turns his rod into a serpent, the rivers into blood, and creates frogs: but upon through which must travel to be defined, supported the fourth, the God of the Israelites obtains the laurel, he covers them all over with lice! The Egyptian magicians cannot do the same, and this lousy triumph proclaims the victory! They make their God to rain fire and brimstone upon Sodom and Gomorrah and belch fire and smoke upon mount Sinai, as if he was the research discussion Pluto of the lower regions. They make him salt up Lot's wife like pickled pork; they make him pass like Shakespeare's Queen Mab into the brain of their priests, prophets, and prophetesses, and tickle them into dreams, [NOTE: Tickling a parson's nose as 'a lies asleep, Then dreams he of essays, another benefice. (Rom. and Jul.) -- Editor.] and after making him play all kinds of tricks they confound him with Satan, and leave us at a loss to cces know what God they meant!

This is the descriptive God of the Old Testament; and as to the New, though the authors of it have varied the scene, they have continued the vulgarity. Is man ever to be the dupe of priestcraft, the slave of superstition? Is he never to have just ideas of his Creator? It is better not to scholarships essays believe there is a God, than to believe of him falsely. Cces Discussion Papers! When we behold the mighty universe that surrounds us, and dart our contemplation into the eternity of space, filled with innumerable orbs revolving in eternal harmony, how paltry must the research paper questioons tales of the Old and New Testaments, profanely called the word of God, appear to thoughtful man! The stupendous wisdom and unerring order that reign and govern throughout this wondrous whole, and call us to reflection, 'put to shame the Bible!' The God of eternity and of all that is real, is not the research discussion papers God of passing dreams and malcolm x autobiography thesis, shadows of man's imagination.

The God of truth is not the God of fable; the belief of a God begotten and a God crucified, is papers, a God blasphemed. It is making a profane use of reason. Deadline! -- Author.] I shall conclude this Essay on Dream with the first two verses of Ecclesiastics xxxiv. one of the books of the research discussion Apocrypha. The hopes of scholarships w o essays, a man void of understanding are vain and false; and dreams lift up fools. Whoso regardeth dreams is like him that catcheth at a shadow, and followeth after the wind.

I now proceed to an examination of the passages in the Bible, called prophecies of the coming of Christ, and to show there are no prophecies of any such person; that the passages clandestinely styled prophecies are not prophecies; and that they refer to circumstances the Jewish nation was in at the time they were written or spoken, and not to any distance of future time or person.