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VRHS AP Literature: Great Expectations thesis statements
Biography of Barbara Jordan: Political Activist. Expectations Essay Thesis? Essay by paradisexbabe13 , High School, 11th grade , A- , April 2004. Barbara Jordan was born on February 21, 1936 in Houston, Texas. She had 2 sisters, and her parents were Reverend Benjamin, a Baptist minister, and Arlyn Jordan. Her mother was a great orator, or speaker, but did not pursue a career, and instead devoted herself to being a wife and mother. Her mother was the most eloquent, articulate person I ever heard. If she had been a man, she would have been a preacher. Barbara inherited her great oratorical skills from her father and mother. Barbara's grandfather, John Ed Patten, introduced her to literature and philosophy and helped her improve her speaking skills. She attended Phillis Wheatley High School and participated in debates and public speaking engagements.
She was the first place winner at the National Ushers Convention Oratorical Contest in Chicago, Illinois. Barbara received the Girl of the Year Award and became a well-known and respected public speaker throughout Texas. In 1952, Barbara enrolled in a dream speech essay, Texas Southern University (TSU). Her tutor was Dr. Thomas Freeman, the University's debate coach. She attributed much of my success as a speaker to him. I thought I had superb diction and that no one would need to great expectations essay thesis, correct anything.
Thomas Freeman found a flaw, and youth worked on it until it was corrected. I cannot overestimate the impact and influence Dr. Thesis? Freeman had on my life. In 1956, She graduated from of construction contract, TSU with honors. Great Expectations? After graduating from TSU, She attended Boston University Law School and graduated in 1959. Barbara passed both the Massachusetts and Texas bar examinations and set up a law practice in my parents' kitchen. After saving enough money, she moved her firm to essay help, the Fifth Ward, an expectations essay thesis, African American section of Houston. In 1966, Barbara ran for the Texas Senate and won the essays armies Democratic Primary with over expectations essay thesis 60 percent of the. Biography of Barbara Jordan: Political Activist. (2004, April 18).
In WriteWork.com. Retrieved 23:15, October 03, 2017, from http://www.writework.com/essay/biography-barbara-jordan-political-activist. WriteWork contributors. Armies? Biography of Barbara Jordan: Political Activist WriteWork.com. WriteWork.com, 18 April, 2004. Web.
03 Oct. 2017. WriteWork contributors, Biography of expectations thesis, Barbara Jordan: Political Activist, WriteWork.com, http://www.writework.com/essay/biography-barbara-jordan-political-activist (accessed October 03, 2017) Role of Government Intervention in Environmental Issues. Of Construction Contract? . the case. In general, international agreements have its advantages, due to thesis, the fact that we can harmonize international standards. Therefore environmental concern is one of the key issues that the policy makers and MNCUs should set a high . 7 pages 421 Oct/1996 4.9. . of the district court. This case dealt with the military essays byzantine armies public school district of New Hyde Park, New York.
The problem in this case was that school officials were allowing a school prayer at the beginning of the day. A main political issue within public schools involves the great expectations essay thesis First Amendment, how the school . 6 pages 443 1 Sep/1996 4.6. . the format of informal rulemaking, so it would be a good policy to make high profile cases good situations to place on introductions the formal rulemaking track. Another controlling influence is the three acts which impose public scrutiny of the great thesis agencies behavior during rulemaking. The freedom of . 3 pages 147 Jan/1996 3.3. . the House of Representatives, and the Senate. These sections are composed of elected officials from each of the byzantine armies fifty states. In the House of Representatives, the states are represented in proportion to the population of the individual state. Great Expectations? In the Senate, the . 3 pages 72 Oct/1996 3.3. Anthem For Doomed Youth Essays? Explain the impact of the Articles of the Confederation on the Constitutional Convention of 1787. How were the essay thesis imperfections of the Articles ‘corrected’ with the new constitution? . University of Wisconsin Press 1940, 109 Herbert Storing, What the Anti-Federalists Were For, University of Chicago Press, 1981, 12 1 William Dudley, ed., The Creation of the Constitution: Opposing Viewpoints, Greenhaven Press, 1995, 40 2 William Dudley, ed., The Creation of the . Anthem Youth? 7 pages 524 3 Mar/2002 4.6.
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Our system seems to run very well and contract . 4 pages 28 Jan/2008 0.0. . state to state? In the Constitution Article 1, Section 8 states: To regulate Commerce with foreign . Expectations Thesis? 2 pages 246 1 Sep/2006 4.0. . of the Electoral College is that most states have a winner-take-all system. Answer a-d listed in . . the governments fear of recounting every vote in contract, the United States. Now if there is any concern of .
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Study Guide for Great Expectations-ESSAY TOPICS / ESSAY IDEAS
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. In its simplest form, the KK principle says that, for any proposition p, if one knows that p, then one knows that one knows it. More complex formulations say that if one knows that p, then one is in a position to know that one knows it, and this is fleshed out in a variety of ways. One reason why philosophers are interested in the KK principle is its relevance to the question of whether epistemic logic is a branch of modal logic. An important issue in modal logic is whether necessary truths are necessarily necessary; the corresponding issue in thesis, modal epistemic logic is whether the KK principle holds. Another reason for interest in the principle is its relevance to the debate between internalists and externalists about knowledge. Cultural Studies Essay! It is natural for great expectations essay internalists to endorse something like the KK principle, and for externalists to reject it. A third reason for of construction contract interest in the KK principle is its connection to the paradox of the Surprise Examination.
The reasoning which generates this paradox seems to assume that certain kinds of knowledge can be repeatedly iterated, and hence that something like the KK principle holds. Great Essay Thesis! A final reason for studying the principle is its relevance to recent debates about the luminosity of mental states (where a mental state is luminous iff, roughly, one cannot be in that state without being in wordsearch, a position to know that one is in great expectations essay, it). Assignment Contract! If the KK principle holds, then knowledge is a luminous mental state; but there are powerful arguments against the luminosity of other mental states which seem to show that this cannot be the case. In his 1951, G.H. von Wright suggested that epistemic logic— the logic of the term “knows— is a branch of modal logic— that is to say, the great thesis logic of possibility and necessity. Von Wright’s suggestion was taken up by Jaakko Hintikka, who developed one of the first modal systems of epistemic logic in his 1962.
One important issue in modal logic is whether the following principle should be endorsed: “Np > NNp” (where “N” = “It is necessarily the case that” and “>” = “If…then…”). Essays Byzantine Armies! The corresponding issue in modal epistemic logic is whether the following principle should be endorsed: “Kp > KKp” (where “K” = “One knows that”). In chapter 5 of his 1962, Hintikka argues that it should. Hintikka’s arguments for this “KK principle” are hard to follow; but the gist of them (as clarified in his 1970) seems to great expectations essay be this: Suppose we say that evidence for and juliet essay a proposition, P, is great thesis, conclusive iff it is studies, so strong that, once one discovers it, further inquiry cannot give one reason to stop believing P. The concept of knowledge used by many philosophers seems to be a strong one on expectations thesis which one knows P only if one’s evidence for P is conclusive in this sense.
It is plausible that the KK principle holds for this strong concept of knowledge. For it is plausible that one’s evidence for P is anthem for doomed, conclusive in the above sense only if it rules out the possibility that one does not know P, and thus only if it allows one to know that one knows P. To see this, suppose one has evidence, E, for a proposition P, and that E does not rule out the possibility that one does not know P. If E does not rule out this possibility, then, after one has discovered E, further inquiry can, in principle, reveal to one that one does not know P. But if further inquiry were to reveal this, then it would surely give one reason to thesis stop believing P (since one should not believe things that one does not know). Assignment Contract! So it is plausible that, if E does not rule out the possibility that one does not know P, then it is not conclusive in the sense just defined, and great hence plausible that, if knowledge requires evidence that is conclusive in this sense, the KK principle holds. (cf. Military Byzantine! Hintikka 1970: 145-6) As Hintikka stresses in his 1970, the above argument aims only to show that the KK principle holds for a very strong, idealised concept of knowledge, which may be very different from the expectations essay thesis concept used in everyday discourse. Because of this, Hintikka can sidestep objections which say that the principle conflicts with our everyday knowledge claims. One such objection says that, when the claim is made that someone knows that p, it cannot usually be claimed that they know that they know that p, that they know that they know that they know that p, and so on military essays byzantine (cf.
Rynin 1967: 29). The fact that one is not prepared to claim these things may show that the KK principle fails for our ordinary concept of knowledge, but it does not show that the principle fails for the strong concept that Hintikka has in mind. Great Essay! Similarly, the objection that the KK principle prevents knowledge from being ascribed to animals and young children (who lack the concept of assignment contract, knowledge and so cannot know that they know) is not problematic for Hintikka. For he can say that, when knowledge is ascribed to such subjects, the everyday concept of knowledge is being used rather than his strong concept. If the KK principle only holds for a concept of essay, knowledge that is very different from our everyday concept, then why should one be interested in it? According to Hintikka, its interest derives from the fact that (in spite of the differences between our everyday concept and the strong concept) there are “many philosophers, traditional as well as contemporary” who use the strong concept of knowledge for which the anthem for doomed youth essays principle holds (1970: 148). Hintikka thinks that, by seeing that the KK principle holds for great expectations essay thesis this strong concept, one can see that there are problems with the concept (and thus, problems for the philosophers who use it). He argues for this by anthem for doomed youth essays, appealing to great essay some ideas about the purpose of philosophical and scientific inquiry that are suggested by essays armies, the work of expectations essay thesis, Karl Popper. According to these Popperian ideas, philosophers and scientists should always aim to encourage inquiry and discussion; they should never try to bring it to an end.
Because of this, they should not employ a concept of and juliet, knowledge which requires conclusive evidence in great expectations thesis, Hintikka’s sense. For evidence for P which is conclusive in this sense renders further inquiry into persuasive essay, P pointless, and so acts as a “discussion stopper.” And what philosophers and scientists should be aiming for is evidence that encourages further inquiry and discussion, rather than evidence that stops it. (Hintikka 1970: 148-9) Another problem for the strong concept of knowledge which Hintikka mentions briefly is that the standards that one must meet, in essay thesis, order to satisfy this concept, seem unrealistically high (1970: 149). One can see this problem more clearly by seeing that the KK principle holds for the strong concept. For, as shall be seen in section 3, there is reason to think that each iteration of one’s knowledge requires an cultural studies essay help, improvement in one’s epistemic position. Because of this, the KK principle can seem to imply, implausibly, that one must be in a maximally strong epistemic position in order to know.
2. Internalism, Externalism and the KK principle. The debate over the KK principle is related to the debate between internalists and externalists about knowledge. The connection between the two debates can be illustrated by focusing on some examples of internalist and externalist theories. A good example of an internalist theory of knowledge is the classical “justified true belief” or JTB theory that was the target of great expectations thesis, Edmund Gettier’s 1963 article. According to the JTB theory, knowledge is a dream essay, true belief that is based on adequate evidence or reasons, where the adequacy of our evidence or reasons is great essay thesis, something that one can determine by introspection and reflection. A good example of an for doomed essays, externalist theory of knowledge is the great essay thesis reliabilist theory defended by Goldman (1979) and others on which knowledge is, roughly, true belief that is produced by wordsearch, a reliable process. The reliability of the processes that produce our beliefs is not something that one can determine by introspection and reflection; it is a matter for empirical investigation. In general, internalist theories of knowledge say that the property which distinguishes knowledge from mere true belief (which property, following Plantinga 1993a, can be called warrant ) is internal to our cognitive perspective. More precisely, they say that we can learn whether our beliefs have warrant without “looking outside ourselves”— in other words, without using anything other than introspection and reflection. Externalist theories say that warrant may be external to our cognitive perspective, and that empirical investigation may be needed to ascertain which of our beliefs have it.
The reliabilist theory described is just one example of an externalist theory. Great Expectations Essay Thesis! Others include the assignment causal theory of knowledge defended by Goldman (1967) and the counterfactual theories defended by great expectations, Dretske (1971) and Nozick (1981). It is natural for internalists to endorse something like the KK principle. A Dream! For knowing that one knows that p is primarily a matter of knowing that one’s belief that p is warranted, and great essay it is natural for internalists to say that one is always in a position to know whether one’s beliefs are warranted. Of course, to cultural essay help know that one knows that p, one must also know that one’s belief that p is true. Great Essay! But it seems clear that anyone who knows that p is in i have speech essay, a position to know that their belief that p is true; so it is natural for great expectations internalists to and juliet endorse the KK principle. It is also natural for externalists to reject this principle. Expectations Thesis! For, if warrant may be external to our cognitive perspective, then there is no special reason to expect those who know that p to be in a position to know that their belief that p is warranted. This can be seen this more clearly by focusing on the reliabilist theory of romeo and juliet essay introductions, knowledge.
If one’s belief that p is produced by a reliable process that one knows nothing about, then one may have no way of expectations thesis, knowing that this belief constitutes knowledge, and thus no way of knowing that one knows that p. In light of the above points, it is studies help, natural to think that arguments for internalist theories of knowledge support the KK principle, and that arguments for externalist theories threaten it. Arguments for externalist theories are given by great, Goldman (1967, 1976), Armstrong (1973), Dretske (1971, 1981), Nozick (1981) and Plantinga (1993a and 1993b), and arguments for internalist theories by Chisholm (1966, 1988), Lehrer (1974, 1986) and BonJour (1985). Of Construction! Externalist theories are often motivated by a desire to understand knowledge in expectations essay, terms of scientific concepts, like causation and counterfactual dependence (cf. Goldman 1967, Quine 1969 and Armstrong 1973); they can also be motivated by studies help, a desire to great expectations essay avoid scepticism (cf. Nozick 1981). Internalist theories are generally motivated by the thought that there is and juliet essay, a strong link between knowledge and justification (cf. Great Expectations Essay! Chisholm 1966, Lehrer 1974 and BonJour 1985); they can also be motivated by and juliet essay, the related thought that knowledge is an essentially normative property (cf.
BonJour 1985, Chisholm 1988 and Kim 1988). Whether these motivations for great the two kinds of anthem youth, theory are good ones remains to be seen; but it is useful to see that they have a bearing not just on these theories, but also on the issue of whether the great expectations essay KK principle holds. However, it is important to realise that, while it is natural for internalists to endorse and romeo essay introductions externalists to reject the essay KK principle, it is not necessary for them to do so. Internalists can reject the KK principle, and externalists can endorse it. For Doomed! To see that internalists can reject the expectations essay KK principle, note that it is possible to adopt a position on which one is not always in a position to know about the internal, mental properties that are normally accessible to introspection and reflection. Timothy Williamson holds a position of this kind; his arguments for it are described in section 4. Of Construction! To see that externalists can endorse the KK principle, note that one can say that the property that externalists identify with warrant— such as being caused in the right way, or being produced by a reliable process— is one that has to great expectations essay be known about in order to have knowledge. Of Construction Contract! Alvin Goldman comes close to adopting a position of this kind in his 1967, when he argues that, in cases of inferential knowledge, a subject must “correctly reconstruct” important elements of the causal chain leading from the fact that p to great their belief that p in order to have knowledge. Overall, it seems clear that, while the internalism/externalism debate is relevant to cultural the KK principle, there are other issues that bear on great its status.
Some of these issues are described in the next two sections. 3. The Surprise Examination and the KK principle. There are a number of thinkers who hold that the KK principle, or something very like it, plays a crucial role in the Surprise Examination paradox (see Harrison 1969, McLelland and Chihara 1975 and Williamson 1992: 226-32 and 2000:135-146 for examples). Their view is, roughly, that the paradox can be solved by rejecting the principle. In what follows, a brief outline will be given of the paradox and the way in studies, which the principle seems to be related to it. (For a much more detailed description of the paradox and its history, see chapter 7 of Sorensen 1988.)
Suppose that a teacher announces to her pupils that she intends to give them a surprise examination at great expectations essay some point in the following term. The pupils can argue, as follows, that she will not be able to do this: If you want the of construction contract exam to be a surprise, then you cannot give it on great expectations essay thesis the last day of term; for if you do, then we will know, on the second-to-last day, that it will be on the last day, and the exam won’t be a surprise. You also cannot give the exam on the second-to-last day of term. For if you do, then we will know, on anthem essays the third-to-last day, that it will be on great essay either the last day or the second-to-last day, and will know, by the reasoning just described, that it will not be on the last day; so again the exam won’t be a surprise. Parallel reasoning shows that you cannot give the exam on the third-to-last day, or the fourth-to-last day, or on any of the other days of term. Romeo And Juliet Essay! Because of this, there is great thesis, no way that you can give us a surprise examination. It is natural to think there must be something wrong with the pupils’ reasoning; but it is hard to anthem for doomed essays see where the reasoning goes wrong. One promising suggestion is that it goes wrong by great, assuming that the pupils can repeatedly iterate their knowledge of romeo and juliet introductions, certain facts about the expectations thesis exam (cf.
Williamson 2000: 140-1). To see that this suggestion is promising, the pupils’ reasoning needs to essay help be divided into parts. Let part 1 of the expectations essay thesis pupils’ reasoning be the part that rules out the last day, let part 2 be the part that rules out the second-to-last day, and so on. Since part 2 of the pupils’ reasoning rests on studies the assumption that part 1 works, it is natural to say that part 2 works only great essay, if they know that part 1 works. And since part 3 rests on the assumption that part 2 works, it is natural to say that part 3 works only if they know that part 2 works, and thus, only if they are in youth, a position to know that they know that part 1 works. Similar reasoning seems to expectations essay thesis show that part 4 works only if they are in a position to know that they know that they know that part 1 works, and so on. So the pupils’ reasoning seems to assume that they are in a position to repeatedly iterate their knowledge of the fact that part 1 works, and it is not at romeo introductions all clear that this assumption is correct. To see that the assumption is great expectations essay, implausible, imagine that the teacher asks the pupils whether they know that part 1 of their reasoning works, and then asks them whether they know that they know this, and essays byzantine armies so on.
It is plausible that, at some stage of this interrogation, the pupils should stop saying “Yes” to the teacher’s questions. For it is plausible that the epistemic standard that the pupils have to meet in order to great expectations essay thesis appropriately say “Yes” goes up with each new question. Persuasive Essay! If someone is asked whether it is the case that p, and when they say “Yes,” they are asked whether they know that it is the expectations essay thesis case that p, they are generally being asked to check their original assertion against higher standards (cf. DeRose 2002: 184-5). Because of this, it is plausible that the pupils cannot go on iterating their knowledge of part 1’s success forever. And if that is contract, so, then there is a limit to the number of possible examination days that their reasoning can rule out. If there is essay thesis, such a limit, it can be used to explain why the pupils’ reasoning fails to show that the teacher cannot give them a surprise examination. The explanation is that they cannot iterate their knowledge of part 1’s success enough to rule out every day of the term.
In defense of this explanation, note that the persuasive pupils’ reasoning does seem to rule out later days of the term as possible days for the exam. Essay Thesis! It is very plausible that part 1 of the military armies reasoning rules out the last day of term as a possible date for the exam, and quite plausible that part 2 rules out the second-to-last day. But parts 3 and 4 seem more questionable, and by thesis, the time part 10 is gotten to, it is clear that something has gone wrong. The above explanation can account for this gradual loss of power in the pupils’ reasoning, by appealing to cultural studies the gradual increase in essay, the number of iterations of knowledge required to make the reasoning work (cf. Williamson 2000: 142). If the failure of the romeo essay pupils’ reasoning is best explained in terms of limits on great essay thesis their ability to romeo and juliet essay introductions iterate their knowledge, then one seems obliged to say that their knowledge does not satisfy the KK principle.
For if it did satisfy this principle, they would be able to iterate it as many times as they liked. The fact that the knowledge of the epistemically limited pupils does not satisfy this principle does not show that there are not other, more idealised kinds of knowledge that do. But it does suggest that the principle fails to hold for our everyday concept of knowledge, and hence that the essay thesis best strategy for defending it is to follow Hintikka in arguing that it holds only for a strengthened version of this concept. 4. Williamson’s Anti-Luminosity Argument. The objection to the KK principle described in the last section is closely related to an objection given by persuasive essay, Timothy Williamson. Williamson’s objection uses the concept of luminosity ; for him, a condition, C, is expectations essay, luminous iff the following claim holds: (L) For every case ?, if in ? C obtains, then in ? one is in a position to know that C obtains (2000: 95). If the KK principle holds, then the condition of knowing that p is luminous in persuasive essay wordsearch, Williamson’s sense. In chapter 4 of his 2000, Williamson argues that any condition that can be gradually gained or lost is not luminous, and that, since knowing that p is a condition that can be gradually gained or lost, the KK principle fails.
Williamson argues against the luminosity of great expectations, conditions that can be gradually gained or lost by focusing on the condition of feeling cold , which seems to persuasive wordsearch stand a very good chance of being luminous. His argument is great thesis, focused on a case in essay, which: (i) One feels freezing cold at great essay thesis dawn, very slowly warms up and feels hot by noon. (ii) One is not aware of any change in one’s feelings of hot and cold over 1 millisecond, and: (iii) Throughout the morning, one thoroughly considers how cold or hot one feels, and so always knows everything that one is in a position to know about this. Using t 0 , t 1 . t n for times at anthem for doomed youth essays 1 millisecond intervals between dawn and great expectations essay noon, and ? i for the case that holds at t i (where 0 ? i ? n), Williamson argues that the following principle holds for all values of i: (1 i ) If in ? i one knows that one feels cold, then in ? i+1 one feels cold. He does so by appealing to the plausible safety principle that, if one knows that p, then one’s belief that p could not easily have been false. When this principle is formulated in terms of possible cases, it says: one knows that p in case ? only if one’s belief that p is true in every possible case that is sufficiently similar to ?. Since ? i+1 is extremely similar to ? i for every value of i, it is natural to help infer from this principle that (1 i ) holds for all such values. After arguing that (1 i ) holds for all such values, Williamson points out essay, that, if feeling cold is luminous, then this principle holds for all values of i: (2 i ) If in ? i one feels cold, then in ? i one knows that one feels cold. (2000: 97) He then attacks the luminosity of feeling cold by romeo and juliet introductions, giving a reductio argument against the assumption that (1 i ) and (2 i ) hold for all values of i. One way of giving this argument (used in Neta and Rohrbaugh 2004) is to note that, by hypothetical syllogism, (2 i ) and (1 i ) together entail: (3 i ) If in expectations thesis, ? i one feels cold, then in ? i+1 one feels cold. If (1 i ) and essay (2 i ) hold for great expectations all values of i, then (3 i ) also holds for all such values. And if it does, then this principle, which is military byzantine, clearly true: (since ? 0 is at expectations essay dawn and at dawn one is freezing) implies this principle, which is clearly false: (since ? n is at noon and at noon one is hot).
No true principle can imply a false principle. So (3 i ) cannot hold for all values of i have speech, i, which means that (1 i ) and (2 i ) cannot hold for all such values. It has been argued that (1 i ) holds for all such values; so it seems that (2 i ) must fail to hold for some of expectations essay thesis, them. But if feeling cold were luminous then (2 i ) would hold for all values of i. So it seems that feeling cold cannot be luminous. If the romeo essay introductions above argument shows that the condition of expectations, feeling cold is not luminous, then parallel arguments will show the same thing for every condition that can be gradually gained or lost.
Since the condition of knowing that p seems to be a condition of this kind, the speech above argument threatens to show that it is great expectations, not luminous, and hence that the KK principle fails. But there are ways in which advocates of the KK principle, or of luminosity more generally, can respond to the argument. Romeo And Juliet Essay! The next section describes two responses of this kind. One way of responding to Williamson’s argument is to claim, with Weatherson (2004) and Conee (2005), that sensations like feeling cold and being in pain are self-presenting mental states—that is to say, states that are identical with the belief that they exist. If a state is self-presenting, then the belief that it exists satisfies Williamson’s safety constraint; so if feeling cold is thesis, self-presenting, then Williamson’s defense of a dream speech, (1 i ) fails. However it seems clear that the state of knowing that p is great expectations, not a self-presenting mental state; for one can believe that one knows that p without actually knowing it. So while this line of response may show that states like feeling cold and being in anthem for doomed youth, pain can be luminous, it seems unlikely to great essay thesis save the KK principle (as Weatherson and Conee both grant).
Another way of essays, responding to Williamson’s argument is to claim, with Brueckner and Fiocco (2002) and Neta and Rohrbaugh (2004), that the safety principle to which Williamson appeals is false. Great Essay Thesis! This line of response seems more likely to save the KK principle; one way of developing it is to focus on the following example (taken from Neta and Rohrbaugh): “I am drinking a glass of water which I have just poured from the for doomed youth bottle. Standing next to me is a happy person who has just won the lottery. Had this person lost the lottery, she would have maliciously polluted my water with a tasteless, odorless, colorless toxin. But since she won the lottery, she does no such thing. Great Essay Thesis! Nonetheless, she almost lost the lottery.
Now, I drink the pure, unadulterated water, and judge, truly and knowingly, that I am drinking pure, unadulterated water. But the toxin would not have flavored the i have conclusion water, and expectations essay so had the toxin gone in, I would still have believed falsely that I was drinking pure, unadulterated water. The actual case and the envisaged possible case are extremely similar in all past and present phenomenological and physical respects, as well as nomologically indistinguishable. (Furthermore, we can stipulate that, in each case, I am killed by a sniper a few minutes after drinking the water, and so the cases do not differ in future respects.)” [Neta and contract Rohrbaugh 2004: 400] It seems clear that, in expectations thesis, this example, I know that I am drinking unadulterated water, despite the fact that there is a very similar possible case in which I falsely believe that I am drinking such water. So the example conflicts with the a dream conclusion safety principle’s claim that beliefs constitute knowledge only if they are true in all sufficiently similar cases.
Although examples like this one threaten the safety principle, they may not rebut Williamson’s argument. For the key premise of the great expectations essay argument— that (1 i ) is true for all values of i— can be defended in other ways. And Juliet! To see this, consider the following claim, which is the contrapositive of (1 i ): (1 i ') If in ? i+1 one does not feel cold, then in ? i one does not know that one feels cold. It is plausible independently of the safety principle that (1 i '), and thus (1 i ), holds for great essay thesis all values of i. For if one does not feel cold in ? i+1 and one is not aware of any change in ones feelings of hot and cold between ? i and ? i+1 , then how could one possibly know that in ? i one feels cold? Even if it turns out that (1 i ) cannot be adequately defended, it may still turn out romeo and juliet essay, that the KK principle is rebutted by great expectations, reasoning like Williamson’s. Assignment Of Construction Contract! For it is possible to give an argument against the KK principle which closely resembles the anti-luminosity argument described above, but which does not appeal to (1 i ). This argument focuses on great expectations thesis cases of essay, inexact knowledge — that is to say, of the sort of expectations, knowledge that one gains by looking at a distant tree and estimating its height, or by looking at a crowd and estimating the number of people that it contains. In chapter 5 of his 2000, Williamson argues that such knowledge satisfies margin for error principles like the following: (M 1 ) If I know that the tree is essays, not n inches tall, then it is not n+1 inches tall. (M 2 ) If I know that there are not n people in the crowd, then there are not n+1 people in expectations essay thesis, the crowd. He then shows that, when principles of this kind are conjoined with a plausible closure principle on knowledge, they are incompatible with the KK principle. Although Williamson’s arguments against the KK principle are powerful, they can be resisted at military a price. For, in all of their forms, they assume that some true beliefs constitute knowledge (such as a freezing cold person’s belief that they feel cold) and that others do not (such as an accidentally true belief that a 600-inch-tall distant tree is not 599 inches tall).
The first of these assumptions can be denied by expectations thesis, endorsing a skeptical theory on which no true belief constitutes knowledge and the second can be denied by anthem for doomed, endorsing a “universalist” theory on which every true belief constitutes knowledge. Great Essay Thesis! Although both theories have implausible consequences, recent work (such as Goldman 2002: 164 on weak senses of knowledge and romeo and juliet introductions Hawthorne 2004: 113-141 on skepticism) has revealed that both have attractive features. If the great essay thesis benefits of these theories outweigh their costs, then Williamson’s arguments against the KK principle may still fail. In any case, it seems fair to and juliet essay introductions conclude that the KK principle, and expectations the arguments for and against it, remain important subjects of philosophical debate.
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Great Expectations Essay | Bartleby
Resume Fonts, Margins, Style #038; Paper Selection. Building a resume is essay thesis a process that requires finesse. If it’s stuffed with good content but formatted poorly, it will often get tossed into the “no” pile; leaving many job candidates confused as to why they never received a call back. On the studies essay other hand, if it’s clean and professional ( even if it’s filled with fluff ), it will frequently catch the eye of a hiring manager and land you an interview. Although content is ultimately the most significant element of your resume, it’s important to not underestimate the power of great expectations essay thesis appearance. Romeo And Juliet Essay! The reason we need the adage “don’t judge a book by its cover” is because we do judge things by great expectations essay thesis, their appearance frequently , whether we like it or not. This guide will help you take advantage of that fact . Military! Finding the best aesthetic font , outlining ideal margins and even discussing your paper selection —we will cover it all. 1.) Best font for a resume: Style, size color. Creating a clear, succinct resume requires multiple elements working in great expectations essay thesis, harmony. Military Essays! For this to happen, one thing is certain: don’t use Comic Sans . Choosing an aesthetic font might seem daunting, but it doesn’t need to expectations essay thesis, be.
People often ask us: is there a best style? We’ve crunched the assignment contract numbers, and we have an answer. Expectations Thesis! The best font for persuasive, a resume is… Tricked you—there isn’t truly a single best font, but there are several options that stand out amongst the rest! We will give you some solid choices and you can take it from there. Consider downloading some resume templates and see which ones are most attractive to great essay thesis, you. Persuasive Essay! Select your favorite, and try out that font! First, consider this: how will you be sending your resume? Printed fonts and those read on a computer monitor appear differently to the reader.
There are two key groups of fonts used globally: serif and sans-serif (i.e. “non-serif”). Serif fonts have accentuated corners that make them appear more distinct, especially when printed. Sans-serif fonts simply don’t have these accents, which make them clearer at smaller sizes as well as on a computer screen. Example of serifs on great, a capital F, using Garamond Sans-serif capital F, Calibri. Keep these ideas in mind when constructing your resume.
Here’s a breakdown of our top three serif and sans-serif options: Top 3 serif choices: Times New Roman : Times New Roman is a classic serif that looks good both on paper and on a computer screen. It’s a safe, standard choice for any resume. Garamond : Garamond is an persuasive attractive option for people who enjoy a classic, graceful font. Essay! Georgia : Georgia is byzantine also a popular choice. Clear, familiar and functional, it’s a nice change for people who like Times New Roman but want something a little different. Top 3 sans-serif choices: Arial : An excellent choice if you prefer the sans-serif style. It is easy to great expectations thesis, read, and familiar to many people due to its appearance on essays, commonly used web applications like gmail.
Calibri : Popular amongst professionals. If you’ve ever opened a Microsoft Word document, you’ve used Calibri—its use as a Word default makes it palatable for most readers. Great Essay Thesis! Verdana : The spacing of cultural essay help Verdana is great slightly wider than Arial and quite more so than Calibri. Choose this style if you’re aiming for ease-of-reading. Font size is for doomed youth another area that you’ll need to play with to find your ideal option. Essay Thesis! Each style handles sizing differently– for example, Garamond is noticeably smaller than Arial at 12.
Many experts consider 11 to be the perfect size, but this depends on youth essays, the font. The most important thing is that it’s clear and large enough to great thesis, read . A rule of for doomed youth thumb is to expectations essay thesis, choose between 10 and 12; adjusting it according to your style. If you’re leaning toward a smaller font, consider selecting a sans-serif option. The simpler design will help keep visual clarity, which serif styles lose at smaller sizes. Before you shrink your words too much though, try changing the wording to see if you can organically make it smaller. This should be your first course of action, but if necessary, it’s acceptable to armies, make minor changes to the font size margins. The majority of resumes use a standard black and white format. There is a reason for this– bright colors are distracting and take away from your actual content. With that said, you are allowed to use some color if you want, just make sure it complements your content rather than detracts from it. Great Expectations Essay Thesis! Your name, as well as the headers throughout your resume can be modified– but make sure you use the same color here to keep things uniform. A dark red, blue or green can be a nice touch, but using neon colors is military byzantine a surefire way to make the hiring manager take you less seriously.
2. Resume margins, length alignment. The size and expectations essay thesis, shape of persuasive your resume are just as important, if not more so, than the great expectations thesis font. At a glance, the structure already expresses certain ideas to the reader– for cultural essay, example, larger margins make your content seem lacking, whereas smaller margins make things feel cluttered. You don’t want your resume to get noticed for its formatting. Great Expectations Essay! Playing it safe is advisable. Avoid extremes and cultural studies help, you’ll be in good shape (pun intended). Standard one inch by one inch margins are a good choice , but you do have some flexibility. The smallest margins considered to great, be acceptable are half an essay help inch by half an great thesis inch (.5 by .5), but even this format will appear a bit heavy on the words unless done correctly. A good visual balance would be keeping your top and essays, bottom margins between .5? and 1? , and moving between .6? and 1? for your left and great, right margins . Studies Essay Help! This will help decrease reader fatigue and make your resume more palatable for whoever is looking at it. Essay Thesis! Take a look at the following sample to get an idea of good, balanced margins:
The next image is a snippet of a resume with extremely narrow margins. Notice how they push to the very bottom of the page– this gives a cramped feeling to the reader. Narrow margins can make reading anything a chore. For most people the cultural studies help ideal resume length is one page, using reasonable margins as discussed above. Occasionally two pages is acceptable, but three pages is almost always in thesis, danger of being too wordy. Here are some reasons you may need to make yours longer than one page: You have a large quantity of relevant experience. Many candidates can fill a resume with work experiences, but it’s usually possible to narrow them down to the most relevant ones and romeo essay, fit them onto a single page.
If you have many examples of related experience that make your application stronger, don’t be afraid to include them! You are a published scientist or academic . Proper citations can take up a lot of expectations space, so hiring managers in these fields expect this. Military Essays Byzantine Armies! Landing an executive position is your goal . Thesis! These posts require large amounts of relevant experience, so it’s alright if they’re a bit extensive. Before deciding upon a multi-page resume, ask yourself: is the information you’ve added worth the additional page? Or will the hiring manager find it unnecessary? Your resume is a tool to efficiently convey your qualifications to a potential employer so you can proceed to speech conclusion, the interview process– you don’t need to list every piece of work you’ve ever performed. Quality is more important than quantity. If you really do need to great essay thesis, cut the length down, you could try using a resume profile instead of cultural studies a career objective or qualifications summary. Here’s a table to check if you’re okay at your current page length, or if yours could do with a little trimming.
The best alignment makes your resume easy to read. We learn to read English from the left, therefore left alignment is thesis always a safe bet . Your name and contact information is usually centered , but the headers (“Professional Experience”, “Education”, “Additional Skills”) and essay help, your introduction/objective can be left aligned or centered. This depends on essay, the template you’re following, as well as your personal taste. Left-aligned Resume Sample. Center-aligned Resume Sample. Left-aligned Resume Sample. Center-aligned Resume Sample.
You don’t need your resume to be as stylish as this guy, but it doesn’t hurt to try! Another way to accent yours is to use style elements like lines, symbols and text boxes . If implemented effectively, these can help direct the reader’s attention to your stronger sections, and make the overall reading experience more pleasant. If used haphazardly though, they can hurt your chances at getting an interview. Romeo And Juliet Introductions! There are some general rules to follow if you want your style game to essay thesis, be on point. Lines, like many things, must be enjoyed in of construction contract, moderation. Placing a strategic line after your objective makes the thesis reader subconsciously linger on your objective. This is cultural essay a good tactic if you want them to great thesis, give your objective that additional attention. Lines can also be used in anthem for doomed youth essays, a functional resume to expectations, draw the reader’s attention toward your skills section and away from your work history. Functional resumes are great if you have are trying to assignment contract, mask your 1) lack of or 2) abundance of experience. They are also helpful if you have large gaps in expectations thesis, your work history or have been jumping from company to company, which are two things hiring managers don’t like to see.
Whether you’re inexperienced, over-experienced or just have a tendency to job-hop, you can use our wide range of free resume templates to learn how to cover employment blemishes and emphasize your strongest areas. Pugs are cute, but this is not the time to essay wordsearch, put a clip art image of an adorable little Pug puppy on essay, your Veterinarian resume. The only flashy aspect should be your relevant work experience ; others are used to make this experience clear to the reader . This holds true for symbols. Bullet points come in persuasive wordsearch, different shapes and sizes, and are the primary symbol used in great expectations essay, a resume because they draw the hiring manager’s attention to your achievements and i have essay, skills. If there’s a time to get a bit creative, it’s here– just remember to keep things clear. You can’t go wrong with the circle bullet, but arrows diamonds are also nice choices for the less conventional job applicant. Mantis Resume Template (arrows)
Lynx Resume Template (squares) Mantis Resume Template (arrows) Lynx Resume Template (squares) Some experts advise against text boxes because they are worried the Applicant Tracking System (ATS) will skip over the content placed inside, but this bias is a bit outdated. Thesis! As ATS software improves, text boxes have become a viable stylistic option for your resume.
If you’re feeling conservative then feel free to steer clear of military essays byzantine armies them, but if you do want to great essay thesis, use a text box or two (or several), go for it! Text boxes can be an ally in your quest to for doomed youth, achieve aesthetic harmony. One way a well-placed text box can help your resume stand out is by emphasizing certain pieces of information , like your name. Great Expectations Essay! Notice in the following image how a text box around the applicant’s name, “Chris Jones,” makes it jump off the page. A hiring manager is much more likely to remember this applicant as a result, which helps later on in the hiring process. An applicant’s name in speech, a text box.
Text boxes also make your content clearer to the reader because they help break information into reasonable chunks. Great Essay! This makes you appear organized and thoughtful, which are valuable traits in a job candidate. They also improve overall readability. For Doomed Essays! Check out how these headers are highlighted through the use of each text box. Each header included in a text box. Text boxes can also give your resume some personality and essay thesis, make it stand out, but don’t go overboard! They have the power to strengthen and weaken your application, so use every text box responsibly. 4. Studies Help! Resume paper: Color, weight, size texture. Woah, now. Expectations Essay Thesis! Your draft is looking pretty solid, but don’t lose control– it’s not the essays byzantine armies right time to use that Egyptian papyrus you’ve been saving as printing material. I’d also advise against spraying it with cologne or perfume– that only works in the movies.
Legally Blonde might not be the place to look for job application advice. With that said, it’s still important to great essay, consider what impressions different types of paper may give your hiring manager. Bring a printed copy of your resume to the interview! Even if you already emailed a copy to the hiring manager, it’s courteous and wordsearch, professional to have physical copies on hand. The paper color of your printed resume should be some shade of expectations essay thesis white or off-white; avoid colors like baby blue or hot pink unless you’re applying to be the Easter Bunny.
Plain white is definitely acceptable for most people, but if you’re feeling adventurous you could dabble in the realm of ivory or cream-colored paper. Persuasive Wordsearch! These colors stand out a bit from run-of-the-mill white paper, without standing out too much. They are like adding cuff-links to a nice dress shirt– they catch the eye and look nice, but aren’t needed to look stylish. Have you ever felt 100% cotton, 32lbs linen paper? It’s the Rolls Royce of the great expectations paper world, and essay, it will instantly make your resume appear more important than its 24lbs counterpart. It’s soft yet sturdy, and gives the holder a strong urge to expectations, never let go.
Paper quality so good, you can’t help but hold it in two hands. If that paper weight texture is too inconvenient to find, see if you can still land a 32lbs option. 24lbs is better than your standard printer paper, but not by much. Use some serious paper to show that you’re a serious job applicant. There are many factors that can make or break your resume, and we’ve just covered the youth visual elements.
If it’s well-honed, it can be a valuable tool during the job hunt. Expectations! Try not to underestimate the importance of good aesthetics ! If you’re ready to studies essay help, start, you can take a look at our templates pages or use our builder to construct a professional resume in minutes. Get more interviews with our Free Resume Builder. Our software has everything you need, including industry-specific bullet points, templates formatted to fit every type of job seeker, and great essay thesis, exportable PDFs and Word docs.
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Great Expectations Critical Essays - eNotes com
All Hail Aphrodite: Venus in Fur#8217;s Media Problem. David Ives’ Venus in Fur opens on a sparsely furnished audition room in thesis, New York City. Poorly lit by cultural, fluorescent lights, frustrated, and talking on his cell phone, the play’s male lead Thomas Novachek (played by Hugh Dancy in the show’s Broadway production this year) complains that there are no — literally, no — women to play his leading lady. Thomas, who’s written and plans to direct a stage adaptation of Leopold von Sacher-Masoch’s (in)famous novel Venus in Furs, is apparently at great expectations, his wits’ end. “There are no women like this,” he says, “no young women, or young- ish women. No beautiful-slash-sexy women.” He continues, No sexy-slash-articulate young women with some classical training and a particle of brain in a dream conclusion, their skulls. Is that so much to ask? An actress who can actually pronounce the expectations essay word “degradation” without a tutor?” Before this bit of military byzantine, irony sinks in, cue — in true theatrical fashion — an ominous roll of thunder as he describes the expectations actresses: prop-toting, unfeminine (“Half are dressed like hookers, half like dykes,” he says), and, worst of all, desperate. And then — a knock on the door. Enter Vanda Jordan (Nina Arianda), an unrefined, frantic actress with a bag full of assignment contract, props who has missed her audition hours ago. What follows these opening moments is hard to define. On one hand, Venus in great essay, Fur could easily be an audition narrative in which Vanda, a girl with no chance of landing the big gig, proves herself to a doubtful director; on the other, it is a wonderfully dark exploration of power relationships and transgressive desire on par with Miss Julie.
More likely, though, the play is neither — instead, it asks us to reconsider the subtler, more ambiguous and unsettling possibility that many iterations of romeo and juliet introductions, subversion come with their own forms of injustice. The novel Venus in Furs, and Thomas’ adaptation in the play that the characters read together onstage, imagines Vanda Dunayev as a woman transformed into a cruel dominatrix through her relationship with the willingly submissive Severin Kushemski. Pleading with Dunayev to overpower him, Kushemski says, “This is the future of men and great expectations essay women. Let the one who would kneel, kneel. Let the one who would submit anyway, submit now.” Desperate to find a woman — the woman — who can embrace and live out his transgressive desire, Kushemski frets that he is destined to live in misery until he meets the hedonist Dunayev.
His submission to her, however, is tempered by his fierce and overpowering desire to youth essays transform Dunayev into his idol, the goddess Venus: This Venus is the most beautiful woman I have ever seen. I love her madly, passionately, with feverish intensity, as one can only love a woman who responds to one with a petrified smile, ever calm and unchanging. I adore her absolutely. Convinced of her ability to expectations dominate him completely (despite her protestation), and intrigued by her likeness, both physically and intellectually, to his revered goddess, Kushemski is at romeo introductions, once mesmerized by Dunayev and, ultimately, driven mad by thesis, her infidelity. To transform woman into goddess – to definitively upend the relationship between man and woman — is Kushemski’s, and, perhaps, Thomas’, most deep-seated desire. But it is one rife with inconsistencies: at essays byzantine, their cores, both Kushemski and Thomas are blind to the reality that neither Dunayev nor Vanda are the goddess they so willingly conjure. But as Vanda and Thomas read the lines of the play-within-a-play as Dunayev and Kushemski, their electric dialogue — both as Vanda and Thomas and as their characters — belies the notion that the play is simply about overturning the power structure inherent in what we perceive as the great essay thesis actor-director relationship, or in that of anthem, woman to man, wife to essay thesis husband, or submissive to dominant. Transgression, at least the easy transgression of Kushemski’s imagination, is simply not enough to romeo and juliet explain these relationships.
Indeed, Thomas — along with the audience — becomes increasingly, and at times frighteningly, aware that Vanda is more than an auditioning actress with an incredible talent; as their reading becomes more and more intense, Vanda begins to essay thesis question the motivations behind the play’s very subversion: THOMAS: To me, this is a play about two people who are joined irreparably. They’re handcuffed at military essays armies, the heart. VANDA: Yeah, joined by his kink. Great Essay. THOMAS: No. By their passion. THOMAS: You’re denying her passion. That’s sexist, too. She’s as passionate as he is, and this play is assignment of construction, about how these two passions collide. VANDA: What age are you living in?
He brings her into this, and she’s the one who gets to look bad, she’s the villain. By the end of the play, Vanda’s questions have transformed into all-out rage: How dare you? How DARE you! You thought you could dupe some poor, willing, idiot actress and bend her to your program, didn’t you. Create your own little female Frankenstein monster. Great Expectations Essay Thesis. You thought that you could use me to insult me? As she achieves true domination over romeo Thomas (giving away too much here would, of course, spoil the fun of seeing it performed), Vanda’s total transformation from her first lines is nothing less than spectacular. She seems to embody — both literally in an “improvised” scene and symbolically — the goddess that Thomas and Kushemski desire. But whether she is uncannily adept at transforming from “ditz to expectations thesis dominatrix,” bent on undermining the power relationships of the audition process, or in fact Venus herself come to enlighten — or punish — Thomas, the audience is confronted with a play that asks us to consider more deeply our expectations and our judgments.
If we are serious about considering power and gender, we are required to reject cookie-cutter subversions of power relationships; the and juliet essay introductions failure to do so, the play suggests, will accomplish nothing but reinforcing once again Thomas’ and Kushemski’s destructive goddess worship. The significance of a show like Venus in Fur is that it turns the tables deftly on great essay thesis, the audience while simultaneously understanding itself as a testament to the ways in byzantine, which power has so totally infiltrated the expectations essay thesis arts experience. Venus in essay conclusion, Fur, which opened off-Broadway in expectations essay thesis, 2010, received immediate and intense critical acclaim, at least in part due to Arianda’s electrifying performance as Vanda. Rave reviews from top theater critics nationwide extended the show’s performance twice, and are at least partially responsible for its revival (only a year later) on Broadway, which has also been extended. Yet innate in all the hype surrounding the show is what is at best a fundamental inability to express some of the deepest, most compelling truths in the play, and at persuasive, worst a willful ignorance of what it offers. On one hand are distillations of the plot into palatable, simplistic synopses; on the other, profiles of Arianda’s incredible rise from unknown NYU-grad to Broadway’s “next big thing.” Both, ultimately, bear striking resemblance to the very narrative genericism that the play seeks to undermine. In his November 7, 2011 profile of Nina Arianda, The New Yorker’s John Lahr — and the many producers, directors, and writers he interviewed — compared the actress’ talent to great expectations a litany of stage legends: in the article, Barbara Harris, Zoe Caldwell, Barbara Streisand, Judy Holiday, and Meryl Streep each provide easy analogies to Arianda’s astonishing and meteoric rise.
Describing her audition, Lahr writes, Just before Arianda walked into the room, her resume was passed to Brian Kulick, the artistic director of the Classic Stage Company, who was planning to produce the play. Next to studies Kulick at the table were David Ives and the director Walter Bobbie […]. Great. Kulick glanced down at cultural essay help, Aridanda’s lean C.V. Essay. “I’m gonna kill James,” he said to Ives. “This is a waste of my time.” Arianda entered the audition room with her bag of props, just as Vanda does in armies, the script, and performed the first seven minutes of the great expectations thesis play. “She didn’t just read the and juliet essay introductions lines as a character,” Bobbie recalled. “She brought the entire script to life.” […] Bobbie wanted to thesis stop the auditions immediately. “She showed me how the play worked,” he said. “I was afraid someone would cast her by the end of the day. Assignment. It was that breathtaking an audition. I don’t know how to explain it. But when the essay thesis real thing walks in the room you know it.” On her audition sheet, below where Paul Davis had written “Bold. Sexy. Funny,” Calleri scribbled “STW” – Straight to i have a dream speech essay conclusion Wardrobe.
It’s the kind of description you might expect from Thomas Novachek, raving that his very own dominating Venus has walked in the door to give the audition of a lifetime on expectations thesis, a dark and stormy night. Indeed, Lahr figures Arianda’s talent and persuasive essay wordsearch discovery in terms of these stars presumably to indicate the nature of Arianda’s explosive debut, yet in the context of Venus in expectations thesis, Fur ’s resistance to our tendency to imbue women with this exact cosmic quality, the description falls flat . Consider again the contract actresses to whom Arianda has been compared, those paradigms of our arts culture that govern our expectations and give our critical narratives such rigidity. Are these goddesses? Perhaps not, but the language with which we define a woman’s talent — “Bold. Sexy. Funny.” — speaks volumes about the underlying truth of expectations, Ives’ play.
Our ability to even consider a great performance is, indeed, colored by the language of the power structure Vanda ultimately dismantles on studies essay help, stage. Essay. What Lahr’s profile fails to address is Arianda’s profound understanding of the troubling and simplistic way in essays, which we understand women, femininity, and power in art. Great Expectations Essay. If Venus in Fur attempts to expose an and juliet, underlying weakness in the critical medium to tend to problems of power in great, artistic culture, then it appears as though it has done its job. But if reading The New Yorker is not proof enough that these troubling paradigms have hijacked many of our critical responses to artistic experiences, stop by Venus in Fur ’s venue, the essays armies Lyceum Theater on Broadway, and take a look at the standard review lines. “Broadway’s Hottest Date Night!” raves columnist Liz Smith on the play’s marquee. Better yet, the show’s website – reinterpreting the show dramatically for the sake of ticket sales – presents its tagline “A New Power Play” underneath a blown up picture of Dancy menacingly clutching at Aridanda’s neck. Even Charles Isherwood, the expectations New York Times’ legendary theater critic, writes in an article largely aimed at encouraging Broadway ticket sales that Venus in Fur is a “sneaky two-hander about a sexually fraught encounter between a desperate but calculating actress and a high-handed playwright-director.” While marketing campaigns seldom offer accurate snapshots of complex works of art, Venus in Fur ’s scheme seems particularly poor. Perhaps these blurbs are meant to enhance our experience of the play’s surprising intellectual double-back. Romeo And Juliet Introductions. More likely, though, they are meant to capitalize on the perception that sexual subversion — in its simplest, most easily accessible form — is great expectations, enough to attract audiences to the theater instead of the latest Hollywood blockbuster. What it ignores, willfully or not, is the direct implication that Venus in Fur insists upon: that these very assumptions are inextricably linked to political and social identity.
When the complexity and honesty of these identities are attenuated by a media that seeks to essays byzantine armies codify simplistic expectations, we compromise our ability to fully experience art’s greatest political purpose. This kind of media treatment for a play that resists just these theater stereotypes to its very core seems wholly inappropriate, if only because statements like “Broadway’s Hottest Date Night!” for a show largely preoccupied with sado-masochism is egregiously misguided. But there is a deeper, more troubling problem at hand: because performances — particularly ones that catapult new talent into the spotlight — are undeniably fleeting, we must rely on essay, media, reviewers, and writers as both distributors of information and as critics. Romeo And Juliet Essay Introductions. Put simply, the expectations essay thesis media can — and should — uphold as great a responsibility in the production of live art as the military byzantine armies artists themselves. Criticism and the media, in other words, should rise to great essay art’s challenges to and juliet contribute to a healthier, more organic atmosphere for expressions of political and great expectations essay social identity. Venus in Fur is, perhaps, an a dream, astonishingly adept exploration of the great expectations thesis complexities of romeo essay introductions, power and desire as many critics have suggested, but deeper within the text is a more unnerving principle, a question about the confines not just of great thesis, traditional power structures, but subversive ones, too. As Vanda and Thomas — actress and playwright — play out that great masterpiece of subversive psychosexual fiction, the question that emerges is essays, not what the piece says about men and great expectations essay thesis women, sex and politics, or theater and anthem power.
Rather, it asks us to reject these easy dichotomies and look instead towards a subversion that treats its players responsibly, respectably, and — most importantly — as decidedly human. Great Essay. It is this central premise that gives Venus in Fur its vitality: that real, complex, honest-to-god transgression is not easy, and it is not sexy. It is necessary to our very existence. Elena Gambino is a freelance writer based in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Currently a Master#8217;s candidate in political science at Lehigh University, she studies the political role of arts and culture in building just, healthy communities.
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Great Expectations Thesis Statements and Important Quotes
essay on roe vs wade Because neither interest is expectations essay thesis compelling before the second trimester, the State may not regulate abortion in the first trimester either to assignment of construction, preserve the woman’s health or to protect the life of the unborn child. Id . at great expectations essay thesis, 163. After the first trimester, however, the State may regulate the performance of an abortion, but only for the purpose of essays byzantine, preserving the woman’s health, not for the purpose of protecting the life of the great essay thesis, unborn child. A Dream Speech Conclusion. After viability, the State may regulate, and even prohibit, abortion to protect the life of the unborn child, except when the performance of the abortion is necessary to great expectations essay, preserve the life or health of the cultural studies help, woman. Id . at 164-65 (summarizing holdings). The abortion statutes challenged in Roe , which prohibited abortion throughout pregnancy except to save the life of the mother, did not conform to the Court’s “trimester” framework. Accordingly, they were declared unconstitutional. Id . at 164.
In Roe , the Court also held that an thesis unborn child is wordsearch not a “person” as that word is used in § 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment and, therefore, is not protected by either the essay, Due Process Clause or the Equal Protection Clause, id . at 156-59, a holding from which no Justice on essays the Court – then or since – has dissented. In Roe’s companion case of Doe v. Bolton , 410 U.S. 179 (1973), decided the same day as Roe , the Court struck down various procedural requirements imposed by a Georgia abortion statute based on § 230.3 of the Model Penal Code (that the abortion be performed in a licensed and accredited hospital, that the procedure be approved by thesis, the majority of a medical staff committee of the hospital, and that two other physicians in addition to the attending physician certify that the abortion was necessary for romeo one of the reasons specified in thesis the statute). 3 410 U.S. at 192-200. The Court also rejected a vagueness challenge to what remained of the substance of the statute after major provisions of the statute had been declared unconstitutional by a federal district court. Introductions. Id . at 191-92.
4 Both Justice Byron White and Justice William Rehnquist dissented from the expectations, opinions in Roe and Doe striking down the Texas and Georgia abortion statutes. Roe , 410 U.S. at 171 (Rehnquist, J., dissenting); Doe , 410 U.S. at 221 (White, J., dissenting from both opinions); id . at essays, 223 (Rehnquist, J., dissenting). I. The Origins of thesis, a Constitutional Right ^ top. Roe , as noted in the Introduction, was based on essay the right of privacy. As Roe itself acknowledged, however, “[t]he Constitution does not explicitly mention any right of privacy. 410 U.S. at 152. Nevertheless, in a line of decisions going back to the late nineteenth century, “the Court has recognized that a right of personal privacy, or a guarantee of certain areas or zones of privacy, does exist under the Constitution.
Id . This right of privacy, “founded in the Fourteenth Amendment’s concept of personal liberty, the Court in Roe held, “is broad enough to great expectations, encompass a woman’s decision whether or not to of construction, terminate her pregnancy. Expectations Essay. Id . at 153. The roots of a right of personal privacy have been found in the U.S. Constitution in for doomed youth the following places: in the free speech guarantee of the First Amendment, which has been held to protect the possession of pornography in one’s home, Stanley v. Georgia , 394 U.S. Expectations Essay. 557, 564 (1969); in the Fourth Amendment, which secures the right of the people against military byzantine armies “unreasonable searches and seizures of their “persons, homes, papers and effects, and the Fifth Amendment, which prohibits compulsory self-incrimination, see Boyd v. United States , 116 U.S. 616, 630 (1886) (Fourth and Fifth Amendments protect against all governmental invasions “of the expectations essay, sanctity of a man’s home and the privacies of life”); in the Ninth Amendment, which preserves other rights not enumerated in the Constitution, Griswold v. Studies Essay Help. Connecticut , 381 U.S.
479, 486 (1965) (striking down statute prohibiting use of contraceptives by married couples) (Goldberg, J., concurring) ; in the “penumbras (shades) of the Bill of Rights as a whole, Griswold , 381 U.S. at 484-85 ; and in the liberty language of the Due Process Clause of § 1 of the great expectations essay thesis, Fourteenth Amendment, Meyer v. Nebraska , 262 U.S. 390, 399 (1923) (striking down a state statute forbidding the teaching of any subject in any language other than English, or the teaching of modern foreign languages below the eighth grade). The right of privacy, the Court in Roe noted, also has “some extension to activities relating to marriage, . . Essay. . procreation, . . . family relationships, . . Great Expectations. . and child rearing and education. 410 U.S. at speech essay conclusion, 152-53 , citing the following cases: Loving v. Great. Virginia , 388 U.S. Romeo And Juliet. 1, 12 (1967), recognizing liberty interest in marrying the person of one’s choice; Skinner v. Great Expectations. Oklahoma , 316 U.S. 535, 541-42 (1942), striking down statute mandating sterilization of certain recidivists; Eisenstadt v. Baird , 405 U.S. 438 (1972), striking down statute prohibiting distribution of studies essay, contraceptives to unmarried persons; Prince v. Great Essay Thesis. Massachusetts , 321 U.S. 158, 166 (1944), recognizing authority of of construction, parents over their children, but upholding child labor laws as applied to the children of Jehovah’s Witnesses who were distributing religious literature in great exchange for voluntary contributions; Pierce v. Society of of construction, Sisters ,268 U.S. 510, 535 (1925), striking down statute mandating public education of essay thesis, children between the ages of eight and sixteen; and Meyer v. Nebraska (holding described above).
II. Critique of Roe’s Privacy Theory ^ top. The Supreme Court’s reliance on privacy theory to cultural help, support a right to abortion is problematical at several levels. Expectations Essay. First, as the Court itself recognized, Roe , 410 U.S. at 152, the Constitution itself “does not expressly mention any right of privacy.” To be sure, as Justice Hugo Black noted in his dissent in Griswold v. Connecticut , 381 U.S. 479, 508-10 (1965) (Black, J., dissenting), various provisions of the assignment contract, Bill of thesis, Rights protect specific privacy interests, for example, the First Amendment’s right of associational privacy, the Fourth Amendment’s protection against unreasonable searches and seizures and the Fifth Amendment’s prohibition of compelled self-incrimination. But the Constitution does not create a general right of privacy. See , e.g ., Katz v. Romeo And Juliet Essay. United States , 389 U.S. 347, 350 (1967) (Fourth Amendment, which “protects individual privacy against certain kinds of governmental intrusions,” “cannot be translated into a general constitutional ‘right to expectations, privacy’”).
Recognition of a “general constitutional ‘right to privacy’” cannot be reconciled with the care with which the Framers of the Bill of Rights described the i have a dream speech essay, specific rights that were being secured. Second, the concept of “privacy” is expectations essay thesis amorphous and introductions, chameleon (or, in Justice Black’s words, “broad, abstract and ambiguous,” Griswold , 381 U.S. at great expectations essay, 509 ). Roe’ s attempt to collect cases under the rubric of “privacy” – a term that does not even appear in most of the contract, cases cited – simply creates an artificial common denominator among a very disparate and largely unrelated group of cases that have nothing to great thesis, do with the subject of abortion, as the Court in Roe freely admitted: “The situation [involving a pregnant woman and her unborn child] . . . is inherently different from romeo and juliet introductions, marital intimacy, or bedroom possession of obscene material, or marriage, or procreation, or education, with which Eisenstadt and Griswold , Stanley , Loving , Skinner , and Pierce and Meyer were respectively concerned.” 410 U.S. at 159 (emphasis added). 6 If a pregnant woman’s decision whether or not to carry her pregnancy to term is “inherently different” from all of the “privacy” cases on which the great expectations thesis, Court relied, then it is difficult to understand how those cases could possibly support recognition of a right to obtain an essay abortion. Third, most of the cases Roe cited in support of its privacy theory were decided under one or another of the provisions in the Bill of Rights. Roe itself, however, derived the great, right of privacy (and a subsidiary right to essay help, abortion) from the liberty language in the Due Process Clause of the essay thesis, Fourteenth Amendment, 410 U.S. at 153, not from any of the military essays byzantine, specific guarantees set forth in the Bill of great thesis, Rights. That directly contradicted the Court’s express refusal, only a few years earlier in wordsearch Griswold , 381 U.S. at 481-82, to essay thesis, rely upon the Due Process Clause in postulating a right of privacy. Fourth, even with respect to the Due Process Clause, the essay, Court no longer examines substantive due process claims (of which, more below) through the lens of privacy, and that includes the subject of essay, abortion. In reaffirming the “core holding” of Roe – that the State may not prohibit abortion before viability for any reason or after viability if the pregnant woman’s life or health would be endangered by essay wordsearch, continuing the pregnancy – the Court, in great essay thesis Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. 833, 846-53 (1992), relied upon the liberty language of the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, not upon privacy theory. 7 See also Cruzan v. Director , Missouri Dep’t of Health , 497 U.S. 261, 279 n. 7 (1990) (analyzing right to refuse unwanted medical treatment “in terms of a Fourteenth Amendment liberty interest, rather than under a “generalized constitutional right of romeo and juliet essay introductions, privacy”).
Focusing more particularly on the Fourteenth Amendment, § 1 thereof provides, in relevant part, that no State shall “deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law . . . .” As its language suggests, the Due Process Clause is concerned with the great thesis, process by which a person may be deprived of assignment of construction, life, liberty or property, not the great expectations essay thesis, substance of the law authorizing such deprivation. See Lawrence v. Texas , 539 U.S. Romeo. 558, 592 (2003) (Scalia, J., dissenting) . It was never the great thesis, intent of the Framers of the Fourteenth Amendment that the Due Process Clause would serve as a battering ram to knock down statutes the essay help, substance of which offended the sensibilities of a majority of Justices who happen to sit on the Supreme Court from time to time. Great Expectations. See Raoul Berger, Government by Judiciary The Transformation of the Fourteenth Amendment (Liberty Fund 2d ed. 1997) 221-39, 273-306. 8 Despite its focus on process, the Due Process Clause, at various times in our history, has been given substantive content, resulting in the invalidation of state laws thought to be inconsistent with prevailing understandings of “liberty.” The paradigmatic case in romeo essay this area, before Roe v, Wade was decided in 1973, is great Lochner v. New York , 198 U.S. 45 (1905). In Lochner , the anthem for doomed essays, Supreme Court, over the vigorous dissent of great expectations essay, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., held that state legislation setting limits on the number of hours a person could work in a bakery daily (ten hours) and weekly (sixty hours) violated the cultural studies essay, liberty of an great expectations employer to contract with his employees on cultural help terms that were mutually agreeable to expectations, them.
The notion that the Due Process Clause has substantive (as opposed to only procedural ) content bedeviled constitutional adjudication for a generation, until it was laid to military essays, rest, at great thesis, least with respect to the review of social and economic legislation, in West Coast Hotel v. Parrish , 300 U.S. 379 (1937), which upheld a minimum wage law. Twenty-five years later, the Supreme Court could state that it had “returned to the original constitutional proposition that courts do not substitute their social and economic beliefs for anthem for doomed the judgment of legislative bodies.” Ferguson v. Skrupa , 372 U.S. Thesis. 726, 730 (1963). Despite the interment of what may be called “economic” substantive due process, “libertarian” substantive due process is alive and well. Contract. Under this strand of substantive due process analysis, the great expectations thesis, Due Process Clause “provides heightened protection against government interference with certain fundamental rights and and juliet, liberty interests.” Washington v. Glucksberg , 521 U.S. 702, 720 (1997). Roe v. Wade , while sounding in privacy theory, was ultimately based on the liberty language of § 1 of the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, see Roe , 410 U.S. at essay thesis, 153, and, therefore, may justly be regarded as the modern paradigm of (libertarian) substantive due process analysis.
See Richard Epstein, Substantive Due Process by Any Other Name , 1973 Sup. Ct. Anthem Youth Essays. Rev. 159, 184. But Roe flunks the test the great expectations, Court uses for evaluating substantive due process claims.
In determining whether an asserted liberty interest (or right) should be regarded as fundamental for purposes of substantive due process analysis (infringement of which would call for of construction strict scrutiny review), the Supreme Court applies a two-prong test. First, there must be a “careful description” of the asserted fundamental liberty interest. Glucksberg , 521 U.S. at essay thesis, 721 (citation and internal quotation marks omitted). Second, the interest, so described, must be firmly rooted in “the Nation’s history, legal traditions, and cultural studies, practices.” Id. at 710. Great Expectations Essay. An asserted interest in (or right to) abortion does not meet the second prong of the Glucksberg test. Quite the contrary. As much research has established, especially that of and juliet essay, Professor Dellapenna ( see n. Great Thesis. 4, supra ) , abortion was a crime in English and American common law, at least after “quickening” (that stage of pregnancy when the woman first detects fetal movement, usually sixteen to eighteen weeks’ gestation), and very possibly without such a limitation. With the anthem for doomed youth essays, gradual replacement of common law crimes by statutory crimes in the nineteenth century, the overwhelming majority of great essay, States had made the performance of an abortion at any stage of pregnancy a crime well before the Fourteenth Amendment was adopted in 1868. And the case law interpreting these statutes revealed that the principal, if not exclusive, purpose in enacting these statutes was to protect unborn human life, not (or not solely) to safeguard women from dangerous medical and/or surgical procedures.
See Paul Benjamin Linton, Planned Parenthood v. Casey : The Flight from cultural essay, Reason in the Supreme Court , XIII St. Louis U. Pub. L. Rev. 15, 109-15 (1993). In light of the foregoing, an interest in (or right to) abortion cannot be said to be firmly rooted in our “history, legal traditions, and practices.” III. Applications of Roe ^ top. The Supreme Court has decided almost three dozen abortion cases since and including Roe v. Wade and Doe v. Bolton . Great Essay. A detailed analysis of the holdings in these cases would unduly prolong the length of this essay. The principal holdings, however, may be briefly summarized:
In addition to the Texas abortion statutes struck down in Roe , the Court has struck down state statutes prohibiting particular abortion methods, Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri v. Danforth , 428 U.S. 52, 75-79 (1976) (saline amniocentesis), Stenberg v. Carhart , 530 U.S. 914 (2000) (partial-birth abortion), but more recently has upheld the federal Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Gonzales v. Byzantine Armies. Carhart , 550 U.S. 124 (2007). The Court has upheld statutes prohibiting non-physicians from performing abortions, Mazurek v. Armstrong , 520 U.S.
968 (1997) ( per essay, curiam ) and has held that non-physicians may be prosecuted for performing abortions, Connecticut v. Menillo , 423 U.S. 9, 11 (1975) ( per curiam ) . The Court has struck down statutes and persuasive wordsearch, ordinances requiring all abortions (or all abortions after the first trimester) to be performed in hospitals, Doe v. Bolton , 410 U.S. 179, 193-95 (1973) (all abortions), City of Akron v. Akron Center for great thesis Reproductive Rights ( Akron Center I ) , 462 U.S. 416, 431-39 (1983) (all abortions after the first trimester), Planned Parenthood Ass’n of Kansas City , Missouri , Inc. v. Persuasive Wordsearch. Ashcroft , 462 U.S. 476, 481-82 (1983) (all abortions after the first twelve weeks of pregnancy), but has upheld a statute requiring all second trimester abortions to be performed in either a hospital or a licensed outpatient clinic, Simopoulos v. Essay Thesis. Virginia , 462 U.S. 506, 510-19 (1983). The Court has struck down parental consent and notice statutes and ordinances if they did not contain a judicial bypass mechanism that would afford the anthem for doomed youth, pregnant minor the opportunity to avoid obtaining the consent of (or giving notice to) her parents or legal guardian, 9 Danforth , 428 U.S. at 72-75 (one-parent consent), Akron Center I , 462 U.S. at 439-42 (one-parent consent without judicial bypass), Bellotti v. Baird , 443 U.S.
622 (1979) (two-parent consent) (inadequate judicial bypass), Hodgson v. Minnesota , 497 U.S. 417, 450-55 (1990) (two-parent notice without judicial bypass), 10 but has upheld statutes that contained an adequate judicial bypass, Ashcroft , 462 U.S. at 490-93 (one-parent consent). Hodgson , 497 U.S. at 497-501 (Kennedy, J., concurring in the judgment in part and dissenting in part), id. at 461 (O’Connor, J., concurring in part and concurring in the judgment in part) (two-parent notice with judicial bypass), Ohio v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health ( Akron Center II ) , 497 U.S. 502 (1990) (one-parent notice with judicial bypass), Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. Expectations Thesis. 833, 899-900 (1992) (one-parent consent), Lambert v. Wicklund ,520 U.S. 292 (1997) (one-parent notice) ( per curiam ) . Romeo Essay Introductions. The Court has struck down statutes requiring a married woman to obtain the consent of, or give notice to, her husband before undergoing an abortion, Danforth , 428 U.S. at 67-72 (consent), and Casey , 505 U.S. at 887-98 (notice) . The Court has upheld state and federal statutes restricting public funding of expectations essay, abortions, Beal v. Doe , 432 U.S. I Have A Dream Speech. 438 (1977), Maher v. Roe , 432 U.S. 464 (1977), Harris v. McRae , 448 U.S. 297 (1980), and Williams v. Zbaraz , 448 U.S. 358 (1980), as well as state statutes and municipal government policies prohibiting the performance of abortions by public employees within the scope of their employment or in publicly owned and operated facilities (other than those necessary to save the life of the mother), Poelker v. Doe , 432 U.S.
519 (1977), and Webster v. Great Expectations Essay. Reproductive Health Services , 492 U.S. 490, 507-11 (1989). The Court has also upheld federal administrative regulations (since rescinded) requiring physical and persuasive wordsearch, financial separation of Title X family planning projects from great thesis, other projects operated by Title X grantees that perform, counsel or refer for abortion, Rust v. Sullivan , 500 U.S. 173 (1991). The Court has upheld a requirement that a pathology report be prepared for all fetal tissue obtained in the course of an abortion, Ashcroft , 462 U.S. at wordsearch, 486-90 , but has struck down a requirement that fetal remains be disposed of in a “humane and sanitary manner,” Akron Center I , 462 U.S. at 451-52 . Great Expectations Essay. The Court has upheld some record keeping and reporting requirements, Danforth , 428 U.S. at 79-81 , Casey , 505 U.S. at 900-01 , while striking down others, Thornburgh v. American College of assignment of construction contract, Obstetricians Gynecologists , 476 U.S. 747, 765-68 (1986), because of what the Court perceived as inadequate guarantees of patient confidentiality. Great Expectations Thesis. The Court has upheld a requirement that a second physician be present during the performance of a post-viability abortion to provide immediate medical care for a viable child who survives an abortion procedure, Ashcroft , 462 U.S. at military byzantine armies, 482-86 , but has struck down a second-physician requirement that did not contain an express or implied exception for great expectations essay thesis medical emergencies, Thornburgh , 476 U.S. at 769-71 . The Court has also struck down standards of care for i have conclusion the performance of post-viability abortions that were either vague, Colautti v. Franklin , 439 U.S. 379, 397-401 (1979), or posed an unacceptable risk to the mother’s health, Thornburgh , 476 U.S. at 768-69 , but has upheld a statute mandating fetal viability testing at twenty weeks’ gestation, Webster , 492 U.S. at expectations essay, 513-21 . Anthem Essays. In a pair of decisions, later overruled in part by Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. 833 (1992), which is discussed in expectations essay the next part of this essay, infra , the Court held that States and municipalities could not require a short waiting period before the performance of a non-emergency abortion; that they could not required detailed informed consent information to be given to the pregnant woman seeking an i have speech essay conclusion abortion; and that they could not require portions of the informed consent information to be conveyed in person to the patient by the attending physician, see Akron Center I , 462 U.S. at 442-51 and Thornburgh , 476 U.S. at 759-65 . 11.
IV. Roe Revisited: Planned Parenthood v. Casey ^ top. In 1992, the great essay thesis, Supreme Court revisited Roe and, in a Joint Opinion authored by Justices Sandra Day O’Connor, Anthony Kennedy and David Souter, substantially modified its holdings. Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. 833 (1992). In Casey , the Court reaffirmed what it characterized as the “essential” (or “central”) holding of Roe , consisting of military armies, three parts: First, a woman has “the right . . Expectations Essay Thesis. . . to choose to have an abortion before viability and to obtain it without undue interference from the State. Before viability, the State’s interests are not strong enough to support a prohibition of abortion or the imposition of a substantial obstacle to cultural studies help, the woman’s effective right to elect the procedure.” 505 U.S. at 846. Second, the State has the power “to restrict abortions after fetal viability, if the law contains exceptions for pregnancies which endanger the woman’s life or health.” Id . And, third, “the State has legitimate interests from the essay, outset of the pregnancy in protecting the health of the persuasive wordsearch, woman and the life of the fetus that may become a child.” Id . While reaffirming the “essential” (or “central”) holding of Roe , the authors of the Joint Opinion rejected Roe’s “trimester” framework as an unnecessarily “rigid construct” which “in its formulation . . . Great Expectations Thesis. misconceives the nature of the pregnant woman’s interest,” and “in practice . . I Have A Dream Speech. . undervalues the State’s interest in potential life . . . .” Id . at 872-73. The trimester framework “misconceives the nature of the pregnant woman’s interest” because “[w]hat is at stake is [her] right to expectations, make the i have a dream speech conclusion, ultimate decision [to obtain an abortion prior to viability], not a right to be insulated from essay thesis, all others in doing so.” Id . at essay, 877. “Though the woman has a right to choose to terminate or continue her pregnancy before viability,” the Joint Opinion explained, “it does not at all follow that the State is prohibited from taking steps to ensure that [her] choice is thoughtful and informed.” Id . at great thesis, 872.
The trimester framework “undervalues the State’s interest in potential life,” the Joint Opinion continued, because the romeo and juliet essay, State has a “substantial state interest in essay potential life throughout pregnancy,” id . at cultural help, 876, not just after viability. In light of their dissatisfaction with the trimester framework of Roe and how it had been applied in subsequent cases, the authors of the Joint Opinion developed a new standard for reviewing pre-viability abortion regulations, the so-called “undue burden” test. Casey , 505 U.S. at 874-79. Under that test, “a state regulation [that] has the purpose or effect of placing a substantial obstacle in the path of a woman seeking an abortion of a nonviable fetus” is great expectations thesis unconstitutional. Romeo. Id . at expectations thesis, 877. Applying that test to the statutes challenged in Casey (multiple provisions of the Pennsylvania Abortion Control Act of essay, 1982, as amended), a majority of the Court upheld the detailed informed consent requirement (including the mandated twenty-four hour waiting period), the parental consent requirement and the record keeping and reporting requirements, id . at great, 881-87, 899-901, but a differently constituted majority struck down the studies essay, spousal notice requirement , id . at 887-98 . 12 In upholding the great essay thesis, informed consent requirement (and the accompanying waiting period), the Court overruled, in part, its earlier conflicting precedents in Akron Center I and cultural help, Thornburgh . Id . at 881-82. 13. Both Justice Harry Blackmun and Justice Paul Stevens dissented from the Joint Opinion’s abandonment of Roe’s trimester framework and the strict scrutiny standard of review, while Chief Justice William Rehnquist, joined by Justices Byron White, Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas, dissented from the reaffirmation of the “essential” holding of Roe , arguing that the rational basis standard should be applied to essay, all regulation of romeo, abortion.
14. The Joint Opinion in Casey is notable in five respects: First, in reaffirming what it characterized as the great, “essential” (or “central”) holding of cultural essay, Roe , the essay, authors of the Joint Opinion raised the issue but refused to state whether they believed that Roe had been correctly decided as an original matter of constitutional interpretation, Casey , 505 U.S. at 871 (“[w]e do not need to romeo and juliet essay, say whether each of us, had we been Members of the Court when the valuation of the state interest [in the protection of “potential life”] came before it as an great expectations essay thesis original matter, would have concluded, as the Roe Court did, that its weight is anthem for doomed insufficient to justify a ban on abortions prior to viability even when it is subject to certain exceptions”), 15 relying instead on “principles of institutional integrity” and “the rule of stare decisis [deferring to precedent].” Id . at 845-46; see also id. at 854-69. Second, the Joint Opinion provided no principled basis for thesis distinguishing between the “essential” (or “central”) and the inessential (or peripheral) holdings of Roe , reaffirming the former and anthem for doomed essays, overruling the latter. As Justice Scalia commented, “I must . . . confess that I have always thought, and I think a lot of other people have always thought, that the arbitrary trimester framework, which the Court today discards, was quite as central to Roe as the arbitrary viability test, which the Court today retains.” Id . at 993. Essay. (Scalia, J., concurring in the judgment in part and dissenting in part). A Dream Conclusion. Third, in reaffirming the “essential” holding of Roe , the Joint Opinion abandoned Roe’s reliance on privacy theory, resting its analysis, instead, on great essay thesis the liberty language of § 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment. Fourth, the Joint Opinion tacitly abandoned Roe’s characterization of the persuasive wordsearch, right to abortion as “fundamental.” 16 And, fifth, the Joint Opinion substituted a new standard of review – “undue burden” – in place of the strict scrutiny standard employed in Roe for evaluating fundamental rights, which clearly allows for a broader scope of regulation (but not prohibition) of pre-viability abortions.
17. The strict scrutiny standard of judicial review applies to laws that either interfere with the exercise of great expectations essay thesis, a fundamental constitutional right ( e.g ., voting) or discriminate on the basis of assignment of construction contract, a suspect classification ( e.g ., race). A law reviewed under this standard is presumed to be un constitutional and will not be upheld unless its proponents are able to demonstrate that it is great thesis necessary to promote a compelling state (or governmental) interest. Few, if any, laws reviewed under this standard survive. At the opposite end of the spectrum is the rational basis standard of review, which applies to cultural essay, almost all other legislation. 18 Under this standard, a law is great thesis presumed to be constitutional and will be upheld so long as it has a rational relationship to any legitimate state (or governmental) purpose.
Most laws reviewed under this standard survive constitutional scrutiny. V. The Roberts Court and the Future of Abortion Jurisprudence ^ top. Under the leadership of Chief Justice John Roberts, the Supreme Court has taken a more cautious approach to the review of abortion regulation. Most obviously, the Court, in an opinion by anthem essays, Justice Kennedy, upheld the federal Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act in Gonzales v. Carhart , 550 U.S. 124 (2007) ( Carhart II ), after a differently constituted Court struck down a similar (but more vaguely worded) state statute only seven years earlier in Stenberg v. Carhart , 530 U.S. 914 (2000) ( Carhart I ). Less obviously, the Court has suggested that, at expectations thesis, least with respect to anthem for doomed youth essays, the regulation of abortion, “facial challenges,” i.e ., a claim that a given statute is unconstitutional in great thesis its entirety, are disfavored, Carhart II , 550 U.S. 124 at 130 (“these facial attacks should not have been entertained in the first place”), and “as-applied” challenges, i.e ., a claim that a statute is unconstitutional in particular circumstances, are preferred, id . at 168 (“[a]s-applied challenges are the basic building blocks of constitutional adjudication”) (citation and i have a dream conclusion, internal quotation marks omitted).
Relatedly, in another decision of the Roberts Court, the thesis, Court unanimously held, in an opinion by Justice O’Connor, that when only a limited number of applications of an abortion statute would be unconstitutional, the proper remedy (if otherwise consistent with legislative intent) is to enjoin enforcement of studies, those applications only, not to declare the entire statute unconstitutional. Ayotte v. Planned Parenthood of Northern New England , 546 U.S. 320, 328-31 (2006) (reviewing parental notice law). Significantly, in Ayotte , Justice O’Connor acknowledged that the Court did not take this more circumspect approach in Carhart I, id . at 330-31 (explaining that “the parties . . . did not ask for, and we did not contemplate, relief more finely drawn” than complete invalidation). 19. In light of the Roberts Court’s more cautious approach to the review of abortion legislation, fewer challenges to abortion statutes may be expected.
Moreover, even with respect to those challenges that are brought and are determined to have merit, both the Supreme Court and the lower federal courts are likely to strike down the statute and enjoin its enforcement only with respect to its invalid applications, not in its entirety. VI. A Comment on thesis the Scope of the Health Exception ^ top. Finally, a brief comment on an unresolved area of abortion law – the scope of the health exception required by Roe (as reaffirmed in persuasive essay wordsearch Casey ). In Roe , the Supreme Court held that the States may prohibit abortion after viability “except when it is necessary to preserve the life or health of the great expectations essay thesis, mother.” 410 U.S. at 164. The Court, however, did not define the term “health.” In the companion case of Doe v. Bolton , the Court considered a challenge to what remained of the Georgia abortion statute after major provisions of the statute had been declared unconstitutional by a federal district court. As a result of the district court’s decision, a physician could perform an abortion whenever he determined, in “his best clinical judgment,” that the abortion was “necessary.” At issue in Doe was whether this standard was impermissibly vague. A Dream Essay Conclusion. The Court concluded that it was not: [T]he medical judgment [as to whether an abortion is “necessary”] may be exercised in the light of all factors – physical, emotional, psychological, familial, and the woman’s age – relevant to the well-being of the great expectations, patient.
All these factors may relate to health. Whether Doe , properly understood, mandates an open-ended “health” exception for post-viability abortions is debatable. Although there is the merest hint in anthem for doomed youth essays one older case that the Court (as then constituted) may have regarded the expectations, broad language in essay Doe as a limitation on essay thesis the State’s authority to prohibit post-viability abortions, see Colautti v. Franklin , 439 U.S. 379, 400 (1979), the i have essay conclusion, Court has never directly considered the validity of great expectations, a post-viability ban. Wordsearch. Lower federal courts have read Doe as a gloss on the scope of the health exception that must be included in any post-viability ban, 20 but that reading misinterprets Doe , as Justice Thomas noted in his dissent from the denial of certiorari in Voinovich v. Women’s Medical Professional Corp . , 523 U.S.
1036 (1998): Our conclusion that the statutory phrase at issue in essay Doe [whether the abortions was “necessary”] was not vague because it included emotional and psychological considerations in no way supports the proposition that, after viability, a mental health exception is required as a matter of federal constitutional law . Doe simply did not address that question. 523 U.S. at 1039 (emphasis in original). As things now stand, whether the open-ended “health” language of Doe is a limitation on the authority of the States to prohibit post-viability abortions remains an open question, but one that should be answered by a challenge to an appropriately drafted statute. Given the present composition of the Court, there is reason to anthem for doomed youth, believe that such a statute would be upheld. In recognizing a constitutional right to abortion, the Court in Roe believed that it was meeting the “profound problems of the present day.” 410 U.S. at 165. The “problems” which the Court thought would be ameliorated by its decision included the medical risks associated with pregnancy, a “distressful life and future” for the pregnant woman confronted with an unwanted pregnancy, “[p]sychological harm,” the difficulty in providing “child care,” “the distress, for all concerned, associated with the unwanted child,” “the problem of bringing a child into a family already unable, psychologically or otherwise, to care for great expectations it,” and, for some, “the additional difficulties and continuing stigma associated with unwed motherhood . Anthem Essays. . . .” Id . at 153. More than thirty years of experience with legalized abortion has failed to expectations essay, solve these problems, as well as others for which abortion was touted as a panacea (crime and anthem youth, poverty). Indeed, the regime of legal abortion has aggravated them. See Clarke D. Thesis. Forsythe and Stephen B. Romeo Essay. Presser, The Tragic Failure of Roe v. Wade: Why Abortion Should be Returned to the States . 10 Tex.
Rev. of Law Politics 85, 108-36 (Fall 2005). In reaffirming, as modified, Roe in Casey , the Supreme Court “call[ed] the contending sides of great, a national controversy to persuasive, end their national division by essay, accepting a common mandate rooted in conclusion the Constitution.” 505 U.S. at 867. Given the great essay thesis, issues at byzantine armies, stake in abortion, that call, not surprisingly, has not been heeded. Great Expectations Thesis. The abortion liberty has no “roots” in the Nation’s history, traditions and i have essay conclusion, legal practices. And the “national division” over the abortion controversy, which Roe created and Casey continued, will not end until, initially, the Supreme Court returns the issue of abortion to the States and, eventually, the Constitution is amended to protect the lives of all unborn children. A discussion of the various standards of judicial review may be found in great essay thesis Part IV of this essay, infra . back. When Roe was decided, an unborn child was “viable,” i.e ., capable of living outside of his or her mother, at twenty-eight weeks of gestation.In light of medical advances made since Roe , viability may occur at i have speech essay conclusion, twenty-three to twenty-four weeks, or, in some instances, even earlier, as the Supreme Court recognized almost twenty years ago in Planned Parenthood v. Essay. Casey , 505 U.S. 833, 860 (1992) (noting that viability may occur at twenty-three to twenty-four weeks). back.
Section 230.3 of the Model Penal Code, one version or another of which was adopted by thirteen States before Roe v. Wade , allowed abortion whenever the anthem, physician believed that there was a “substantial risk” that continuance of the great expectations essay, pregnancy “would gravely impair the physical or mental health of the mother,” that “the child would be born with grave physical or mental defect,” or that “the pregnancy resulted from rape, incest, or other felonious intercourse.”In Doe , the Court also struck down a requirement that an abortion could be performed only upon a bona fide resident of the State of Georgia. Doe , 410 U.S. at 200. back. As a result of the district court's judgment, a physician could perform an youth abortion whenever, in his best clinical judgment, the procedure was necessary. back. Interested readers, however, may wish to consult some of the following sources. An early critique of the Court's handiwork in Roe , which includes a brief review of the initial academic responses to Roe (both favorable and unfavorable) is John T. Noonan, Jr.'s, A Private Choice: Abortion in America in the Seventies (The Free Press 1979).
Dennis J. Horan, Edward R. Grant and Paige C. Cunningham (eds.), Abortion and the Constitution: Reversing Roe v. Wade Through the Courts (Georgetown University Press 1987), is a compendium of articles written by a variety of great expectations, authors criticizing various aspects of the holdings and analysis in Roe . The most comprehensive and cultural essay help, thorough analysis of Roe's treatment of the historical treatment of abortion in great expectations thesis English and American law, as well as the restatement of that history in wordsearch James C. Mohr's Abortion in America (Oxford University Press 1978), is Joseph W. Dellapenna's Dispelling the Myths of Abortion History (Carolina Academic Press 2006) (an extremely abbreviated version of Professor Dellapenna's analysis appears in Abortion and the Constitution , supra , at essay, 137-58). Studies Help. A concise critique of the thesis, Court's historical excursus in cultural essay Roe , particularly its explanation for the reasons nineteenth century abortion statutes were enacted, may be found in Appendix A to essay, Paul Benjamin Linton's article, Planned Parenthood v. Casey : The Flight from Reason in the Supreme Court , XIII St. Louis U. Pub. L. Rev. 15, 103-19 (1993). The poor quality of the essay conclusion, analysis and reasoning in Roe has led some academics to rewrite the opinion.
A collection of such opinions and opposing dissents, along with a useful selected bibliography, appears in Jack M. Balkin (ed.), What Roe v. Wade Should Have Said (New York University Press 2005). back. All of the holdings in these cases, and the full citations thereto, appear in Part I of essay thesis, this essay, supra . back. Planned Parenthood v. Casey is discussed in more detail in Part IV of this essay, infra . back. Justices Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Louis D. Brandeis and Hugo Black, as well as Judge Learned Hand, who served on romeo essay introductions the Second Circuit Court of essay thesis, Appeals for i have a dream speech essay decades, all agreed that the use of the liberty language of the Due Process Clause to invalidate the substance of state enactments is fundamentally illegitimate. See Berger, Government by Judiciary , at 227-28 n. 27 (Black), 282 n. 46 (Holmes, Brandeis and Hand). back. Consent of (or notice to) a parent or legal guardian may be waived by a court in a judicial bypass hearing if the minor can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the court that she is mature enough to make the decision to obtain an great essay abortion without the consent of (or notice to) her parent(s) or legal guardian, or, alternatively, that obtaining consent (or giving notice) would not be in her best interests. The Court has upheld both consent statutes, see , e.g ., Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. 833, 899-900 (1992), and Planned Parenthood Ass'n of Kansas City , Missouri v. Ashcroft , 462 U.S. 476, 490-93 (1983), and notice statutes, see , e.g ., Ohio v. Akron Center for studies essay Reproductive Health , 497 U.S.502 (1990), and Hodgson v. Minnesota , 497 U.S. Great Essay. 417 (1990). back. See also Ayotte v. Planned Parenthood of Northern New England , 546 U.S.
320 (2006) (one-parent notice statute could not be enforced constitutionally in medical emergencies requiring the immediate performance of an abortion). back. A general and assignment, non-specific requirement that a physician obtain the informed consent of the patient before performing an abortion was upheld in Danforth , 428 U.S. at 65-67. back. The Court also upheld the medical emergency definition. Casey , 505 U.S. at great essay, 879-80. back. The holdings in Akron Center I and byzantine armies, Thornburgh are discussed in Part III, supra . back. These alternative standards of review are discussed below. back.
See also id. at 853, 858, 864, 869. back. Nowhere in the Joint Opinion is the right to abortion described as fundamental. back. The Joint Opinion in Casey has been subjected to withering criticism. See Paul Benjamin Linton, Planned Parenthood v. Casey : The Flight from Reason in the Supreme Court , XIII St. Louis U. Pub. Great. L. Rev. 15, 103-19 (1993); Michael Stokes Paulsen, The Worst Constitutional Decision of All Time , 78 Notre Dame L. Rev. 995 (2003). Casey is also extensively discussed and romeo, critiqued in Professor Dellapenna's magnum opus , Dispelling the Myths of Abortion History , supra , n. Expectations Thesis. 4. back. Under federal constitutional equal protection doctrine, an intermediate standard applies to classifications based on sex or illegitimacy.
Under that standard, often referred to as heightened scrutiny, the assignment, classification must be substantially related to an important state (or governmental) interest. back.