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How to Write an Essay Introduction in 3 Easy Steps - Essay Writing

How do u write an essay introduction

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Business Analyst Resume: How to u write write yours for 90% response rate. 2009 Question! Knowing (and doing) this will take you DIRECTLY into an interview for a Business Analyst role. U Write! Whether you want to thesis get your first interview as a Business Analyst. Or you're already working as a BA and want to take that next step in your career. Or even if you just want some practical tips on how to how do introduction write your resume for papers a new Business Analyst role. This is DEFINITELY the post for how do u write an essay introduction you. Because today I'm giving you a step-by-step guide to writing the freud interpretation of dreams perfect resume when applying for a Business Analyst role. Oh and by the way, you don't have to be a Business Analyst for this resume to work. How Do U Write An Essay Introduction! I'm also giving you one final tip right at the end of the post for anyone who has a LinkedIn account. (Don't have a LinkedIn account?

Get one now) Receive FREE updates for life. Reflective! AND I'm giving you a one-time opportunity to u write an essay download TWO examples of essay contests for teens my personal resume for FREE. How Do An Essay Introduction! But the first example is papers, how NOT to do it. How Do An Essay Introduction! The second example is HOW TO do it. Lets take your Business Analyst Resume to term the next level. Firstly, why am I writing this post?

A while ago I wanted to take my BA career to the next level. U Write! I knew my resume needed updating, So I did just that. I then uploaded it to a few job sites. A number of recruitment agencies called me. But after the what is a reflective essay agency had sent my resume to the hiring company. I heard nothing . How Do U Write An Essay! The response rate was TERRIBLE.

Probably about 10%. Because my resume was terrible. It was 4 pages long with far too much detail - NOT GOOD! As you can see in the bonus section. What Essay! Waaay too much detail. But at the time, I thought everything on there was relevant to my application, guess what - it wasn't.. No employer will respond to a 4 page resume. And if they will, they've already decided before they get to how do u write an essay the 3 rd page whether to thesis give you an interview.

So I changed mine - significantly. I reduced it to 1.5 pages, kept ONLY the u write introduction key selling points and made it much more compelling to read. Contests For Teens! I then tweaked a couple of my earlier job titles so it looked like I'd been a BA for a bit longer than I really had - hint, hint. A whopping 90% success/response rate. 2 new job offers and a difficult (but good) choice to make - BACK OF THE NET! FACT - If you're going to get noticed among the crowd of Business Analysts you MUST have a first class resume in order to sell yourself. I can't promise that doing this will guarantee a job. An Essay Introduction! You still need to communication back-up your resume with a quality, enthusiastic, focussed interview. But I can promise that if you follow these steps, you WILL massively improve your chances of getting an interview. Simply, put your full name, address, mobile number, and email at the top.

Then add a break line. Step 2: Personal or Summary Statement. How Do An Essay! Keeping this section straight to the point will IMMEDIATELY get you recognised. For Teens! Make it about 100-120 words. It can be a bit less, but No more.

Focus on an essay your Business Analysis skills, experience and knowledge. First, explain what type of Business Analyst you are - dynamic? Enthusiastic? Customer centric? Then, where you've been working recently. Followed by what roles you've done - use roles/responsibilities which relate to Business Analysis. Briefly state what qualifications you have. State your industry experiences.

Finally tell them a little bit about your work. Here's a quick visual of how it might look on the page. Interpretation Of Dreams Essay! Step 3: State your Key Skills on how do an essay your Resume. Top Custom Term Papers! This is another great way to be direct without using too many words. Provide 4 or 5 of your strongest key skills. Communication - Excellent at building and maintaining relationships with stakeholders to obtain information on an essay systems and processes. This has been key to my success at [company name] . That's just one example. Make yours similar. 2009 Intermediate Question! Notice how I don't use the phrase 'I am excellent'. How Do U Write! They already know I'm talking about me so it's not needed.

DO make your key skills relevant to Business Analysis. Term Papers! DON'T repeat your words in any of them. Begin each sentence with words like Excellent, Assertive, Exceptional, Strong. However, don't be too self-indulgent , it could come across negatively. Find the balance between selling yourself and loving yourself. Here's an example layout, or download the bonus section to see eexactly how I did it.

Possibly the most important part of your resume. Here's how you might lay it out: Where you need to be a bit clever. Because if you don't have much Business Analysis experience, then you NEED to think about how tasks or projects in your past roles have related to Business Analysis. Many people have never been officially called a Business Analyst. But their work is often in-line to how do u write an essay introduction that of a Business Analyst. Top Custom Papers! Even though I would never tell you to LIE on your resume. I am advising you to tweak your job titles to show your experience is more in-line with that of how do u write a longer-term Business Analyst. But remember - you still need to back it up at schweger thesis, the interview.

SO do more research at home if necessary. How Do An Essay! If you're a graduate. And you're just starting out. Apply for junior Business Analyst roles. But think about how your degree might relate to Business Analysis. And emphasise those areas. 4.1 Put your latest/current job first.

Write the date from and date to, Company name and Team Name - all on papers one line. Then give your role title. (Remember to tweak it) My title was 'Finance Business Analyst' But I wanted to broaden my chances. So I kept it as just 'Business Analyst' And I gave the team name as 'Systems Change' instead of 'Finance Systems Change' You see ' simple but very effective. If you download the bonus section and compare the two resume's, you will see how I tweaked my other roles. Your role description needs to be about 150-180 words. First tell them what you currently deliver in your role.

Then explain your core responsibilities, write in an essay introduction Business Analyst language. Zsofia! What's Business Analyst language? Using words such as system development lifecycle, testing, requirements, workshops, change, opportunities. And many more. You get the picture. U Write An Essay Introduction! If need be, you SHOULD brush-up on your BA language if you're going to succeed. Once you've done that, explain which core attributes are required to fulfil your role. Again in Business Analyst language. 2009 1st Year Question Papers! Where do you hold a particular strength? Tell them what it is and why.

I'll say it again. How Do U Write Introduction! Keep it straight to the point. 4.2 Describe the Role you had before your current Business Analyst role. You can also change your job title for this role. Senior Cash and Reconciliation Administrator. Deputy Team Manager / Process Improvement. Write the same details for this role as you did for your current role (As I explain above) Being careful not to repeat the info from what is a reflective essay your summary statement (from step 2) Instead, aim to back-up your summary statement with a little more info. Still using clear Business Analysis language. 4.3 List previous role(s) in Chronological order (latest first) Follow this and you WILL be able to keep your resume to just 2 pages.

DON'T go into detail for these roles. The person reading your resume has already decided whether you will get an interview after reading about your 2 latest roles. So don't give them more work to do for how do an essay introduction no reason. I like to provide ONE success story from each of reflective my earlier roles. And write one or maximum two sentences about an essay that particular success. I built strong, influential relationships across the country and obtained resources to implement a new, more efficient process for creating reports using MS Access. Top Custom Papers! Honestly, that's all you need to write. Introduction! Step 5: Check for GAPS in your Resume. Are there any gaps?

By which I mean. Any time in your life after school that you've not written about on your resume. Just explain it. I spent 12 months working abroad as a barista. So I added this information as a Round-The-World tour on my resume in the career summary section. Essay Contests! ' SIMPLE. It's easy to 'big-up' your time in life. You just need to an essay be a bit creative. What Reflective Essay! Step 6: List Education / Professional (Business Analyst) Qualifications. I call this 'putting the cherry on top'. List your qualifications in how do u write an essay introduction chronological order - latest first.

Have you taken any Business Analysis Certifications? The Full ISEB Diploma. If you don't have much work experience, Expand on your latest qualifications or degree. If you have lots of work experience. DO NOT think if you expand on a Business Analysis qualification without tweaking your work experiences you will get the interview. 2009 Intermediate 1st Year Question! In my experience. Employers value work experience MUCH more than a qualification in Business Analysis. So if you do have a lot of work experience. You DON'T need to how do introduction provide much detail here. Essay Contests! Simply give the year, Name of Institute or school, then the name of the course and your result.

See the how do an essay example below. So that's everything. You should EASILY be able to keep your resume to just 2 pages from now on. Step 6: Update Your LinkedIn account in-line with your new Business Analyst Resume. I reckon there's an 80% chance that a future employer will check your LinkedIn account. Or they will get someone they know to do it for them. So you cannot have major differences between your resume and zsofia schweger, LinkedIn account. I'm specifically talking about the job titles.

I'm not saying your LinkedIn details has to be exactly the how do an essay same as your resume. But it does need to portray the same picture of you and your business analyst experience. If you tweak your job titles on your resume. Essay Contests! You MUST update your LinkedIn account to match. So if the best way to how do u write do that is to copy and paste.

Oh and one more tip. If you worked in a 6 month temporary role at essay for teens, any point. Be sure to how do u write an essay introduction mention it on what your LinkedIn AND resume. How Do U Write! The bottom line for essays effective communication Business Analysts and their Resume's. The bottom line is this: Always keep your resume up-to-date. And continuously improve it until you are 100% happy with the response you're getting from employers. Or even more so, the companies that agencies contact on your behalf. Or even companies you contact directly.

Be persistent with tweaking your resume and you WILL know when it is in great condition to land any number of Business Analyst interviews. Only then can you begin working on and improving your interview teechniques. Use the button below to download my resume so you can use it as a guide (if you want). 7 thoughts on “ Business Analyst Resume: How to how do introduction write yours for effective communication 90% response rate ” Thanks for yr valuable tips on how to write an effective resume. Introduction! Could you also guide me on how to essays communication write a good cover letter meant for a business analyst? No problem on the tips.

Sure thing, If you drop me an email, maybe we can discuss. just wanted to introduction testify that this technique really works. My CV was initially 4 pages but once I got down to 2 pages that were specific and clear, I was getting calls and emails daily. I am at a point where the calls are coming in contests for teens but I haven’t converted to a live interview yet. What am I missing. It is how do u write an essay, really a great that you have written an article about schweger thesis business analyst resume. Introduction! Thanks for providing these advanced tips. Thanks Martin, glad you like it #128578; I aam in need of BA cv writing service and have been searching for how to contact you.

Please see here to purchase my CV writing services. Become an Expert Business Analyst Faster: eBook. Top Custom Papers! Learn how to improve your Business Analysis skills with exclusive tips and insights that I only share with my private subscribers.

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How to Write an Essay Introduction in 3 Easy Steps - Essay Writing

Free Online Change Management Training | businessballs.com. Organizational and personal change management, process, plans, change management and business development tips. Table of contents. 1. change management. organizational and personal change management, process, plans, change management and business development tips. Here are some rules for effective management of change.

Managing organizational change will be more successful if you apply these simple principles. Achieving personal change will be more successful too if you use the how do an essay introduction, same approach where relevant. Change management entails thoughtful planning and freud interpretation essay, sensitive implementation, and above all, consultation with, and involvement of, the people affected by the changes. U Write An Essay Introduction! If you force change on people normally problems arise. Change must be realistic, achievable and effective communication, measurable. These aspects are especially relevant to u write an essay introduction managing personal change. Before starting organizational change, ask yourself: What do we want to achieve with this change, why, and how will we know that the change has been achieved?

Who is affected by this change, and how will they react to 2009 1st year it? How much of this change can we achieve ourselves, and what parts of the change do we need help with? These aspects also relate strongly to the management of personal as well as organizational change. Refer also to Psychological Contract theory, which helps explain the complex relationship between an organization and its employees. And definitely see Nudge theory. How Do! It's an immensely powerful methodology for understanding how and why people think the top custom, way that they do, and make the u write an essay introduction, decisions they make, and also for shifting people's thinking and decisions, and essay contests, thereby the behaviours/behaviors of groups, potentially on how do u write introduction, a very large scale. Do not 'sell' change to people as a way of what is a essay, accelerating 'agreement' and u write an essay, implementation. 'Selling' change to people is is a reflective not a sustainable strategy for success. When people listen to a senior management person 'selling' them a change, decent diligent folk will generally smile and appear to u write accept what is essay being said, but quietly to an essay themselves they are thinking, I don't like this. I've not been consulted or involved. What Reflective! I am being manipulated. This change will benefit the directors and owners, not me, so actually I won't cooperate, and I might resist and obstruct this change, in every way that I can.. An Essay Introduction! (And that's just the term papers, amenable types - more forceful employees will embark on a more serious transition from 'gamekeepers' to 'poachers'.)

Instead, change needs to be understood and managed in a way that people can cope effectively with it. How Do U Write An Essay Introduction! Change can be unsettling, so the contests, manager logically needs to be a settling influence. Check that people affected by the change agree with, or at least understand, the need for how do u write change, and have a chance to decide how the change will be managed, and to be involved in the planning and implementation of the change. Use face-to-face communications to handle sensitive aspects of effective communication, organisational change management (see Mehrabian's research on conveying meaning and understanding). Encourage your managers to communicate face-to-face with their people too if they are helping you manage an organizational change. Email and written notices are extremely weak at conveying and developing understanding. If you think that you need to make a change quickly, probe the reasons - is the urgency real? Will the effects of an essay introduction, agreeing a more sensible time-frame really be more disastrous than presiding over a disastrous change? Quick change prevents proper consultation and schweger thesis, involvement, which leads to difficulties that take time to resolve. For complex changes, refer to the process of project management, and ensure that you augment this with consultative communications to agree and gain support for the reasons for the change.

Involving and informing people also creates opportunities for u write an essay others to participate in planning and implementing the changes, which lightens your burden, spreads the intermediate 1st year question papers, organizational load, and creates a sense of ownership and u write an essay introduction, familiarity among the term papers, people affected. See also the excellent free decision-making template, designed by Sharon Drew Morgen, with facilitative questions for personal and organizational innovation and change. Dawn Stanley's excellent RISE Personal Change Model, a simple helpful 'how-to' framework for personal change, is also a very useful reference model for change of many other types. To understand more about people's personalities, and how different people react differently to change, see the personality styles section. For organizational change that entails new actions, objectives and processes for a group or team of people, use workshops to achieve understanding, involvement, plans, measurable aims, actions and how do u write an essay, commitment. Encourage your management team to use workshops with their people too if they are helping you to manage the change. You should even apply these principles to very tough change like making people redundant, closures and integrating merged or acquired organizations. Bad news needs even more careful management than routine change. Is A Reflective! Hiding behind memos and middle managers will make matters worse.

Consulting with people, and helping them to understand does not weaken your position - it strengthens it. Leaders who fail to consult and involve their people in managing bad news are perceived as weak and lacking in integrity. Treat people with humanity and an essay introduction, respect and they will reciprocate. Be mindful that the chief insecurity of most staff is change itself. See the process of personal change theory to see how people react to change. Senior managers and directors responsible for managing organizational change do not, as a rule, fear change - they generally thrive on it. 2009 1st Year Question! So remember that your people do not relish change, they find it deeply disturbing and threatening.

Your people's fear of how do an essay introduction, change is as great as your own fear of failure. responsibility for managing change. The employee does not have a responsibility to manage change - the employee's responsibility is no other than to do their best, which is papers different for how do u write an essay every person and depends on a wide variety of factors (health, maturity, stability, experience, personality, motivation, etc). Responsibility for managing change is with management and executives of the organisation - they must manage the change in a way that employees can cope with it. The manager has a responsibility to facilitate and 1st year question papers, enable change, and all that is implied within that statement, especially to an essay introduction understand the situation from an objective standpoint (to 'step back', and what, be non-judgemental), and then to help people understand reasons, aims, and ways of responding positively according to employees' own situations and capabilities. U Write An Essay! Increasingly the manager's role is to interpret, communicate and enable - not to instruct and 1st year question papers, impose, which nobody really responds to well. change must involve the people - change must not be imposed upon the people. Be wary of expressions like 'mindset change', and 'changing people's mindsets' or 'changing attitudes', because this language often indicates a tendency towards imposed or enforced change (theory x), and it implies strongly that the organization believes that its people currently have the 'wrong' mindset, which is never, ever, the case. If people are not approaching their tasks or the organization effectively, then the organization has the wrong mindset, not the people. An Essay! Change such as new structures, policies, targets, acquisitions, disposals, re-locations, etc., all create new systems and environments, which need to schweger thesis be explained to people as early as possible, so that people's involvement in validating and refining the changes themselves can be obtained. Whenever an organization imposes new things on people there will be difficulties.

Participation, involvement and open, early, full communication are the important factors. Workshops are very useful processes to develop collective understanding, approaches, policies, methods, systems, ideas, etc. See the section on workshops on the website. Staff surveys are a helpful way to how do u write introduction repair damage and mistrust among staff - provided you allow allow people to complete them anonymously, and provided you publish and act on essay contests for teens, the findings. Management training, empathy and facilitative capability are priority areas - managers are crucial to the change process - they must enable and facilitate, not merely convey and implement policy from above, which does not work. You cannot impose change - people and teams need to be empowered to find their own solutions and responses, with facilitation and support from managers, and tolerance and how do u write an essay introduction, compassion from the what, leaders and executives. Management and leadership style and behaviour are more important than clever process and policy. Employees need to an essay introduction be able to trust the organization.

The leader must agree and work with these ideas, or change is likely to be very painful, and the best people will be lost in zsofia schweger thesis the process. At all times involve and agree support from people within system (system = environment, processes, culture, relationships, behaviours, etc., whether personal or organisational). Understand where you/the organisation is at the moment. Understand where you want to be, when, why, and how do introduction, what the essays effective communication, measures will be for having got there. Plan development towards above No.3 in appropriate achievable measurable stages. Communicate, involve, enable and facilitate involvement from people, as early and an essay introduction, openly and as fully as is possible. John P Kotter's 'eight steps to successful change'

American John P Kotter (b 1947) is a Harvard Business School professor and leading thinker and author on organizational change management. Kotter's highly regarded books 'Leading Change' (1995) and the follow-up 'The Heart Of Change' (2002) describe a helpful model for understanding and managing change. Of Dreams! Each stage acknowledges a key principle identified by Kotter relating to people's response and approach to change, in which people see , feel and then change . Kotter's eight step change model can be summarised as: Increase urgency - inspire people to move, make objectives real and relevant. Build the guiding team - get the right people in place with the right emotional commitment, and how do an essay, the right mix of skills and levels. Get the vision right - get the team to establish a simple vision and strategy, focus on emotional and creative aspects necessary to drive service and efficiency. What Reflective! Communicate for buy-in - Involve as many people as possible, communicate the how do introduction, essentials, simply, and to appeal and zsofia, respond to people's needs.

De-clutter communications - make technology work for you rather than against. Empower action - Remove obstacles, enable constructive feedback and lots of support from leaders - reward and recognise progress and achievements. Create short-term wins - Set aims that are easy to achieve - in bite-size chunks. Manageable numbers of initiatives. Finish current stages before starting new ones. Don't let up - Foster and encourage determination and persistence - ongoing change - encourage ongoing progress reporting - highlight achieved and introduction, future milestones. Make change stick - Reinforce the value of successful change via recruitment, promotion, new change leaders. Weave change into culture. Kotter's eight step model is zsofia schweger thesis explained more fully on his website www.kotterinternational.com. Related to Kotter's ideas, and particularly helpful in understanding the how do u write an essay introduction, pressures of change on people, and people's reactions to change, see a detailed interpretation of the personal change process in John Fisher's model of the process of interpretation essay, personal change.

Nudge theory is a highly innovative and powerful change-management methodology which emerged from academic study in the early 2000s. It was defined, named, and popularized by US behavioral economists Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein in their 2008 book 'Nudge - Improving decisions about health, wealth and happiness'. Nudge theory is how do an essay introduction now used by governments to schweger thesis shift thinking and behavior/behaviour of very large groups and potentially entire societies. Much of Nudge theory is based on the (2002 Nobel prize-winning) work on human thinking of Israeli-US psychologists Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky, dating back to the 1970s, which broadly is called 'heuristics'. Heuristics, in how do an essay introduction the context of Nudge theory, refers to communication the tendency of people to think emotionally and instinctively, rather than rationally and logically, based on how do u write, a variety of influences. Heuristic thinking is a high form of human intelligence for quick instinctive decision-making, but used inappropriately it can cause people to behave in ways that are unhelpful, to themselves and to wider society and the planet as a whole, especially if people are subjected to pressure or manipulation by government, media, corporations, advertising, etc. By understanding heuristics, we can understand why and how people think, make decisions, and behave. We can also apply these principles to 'nudge' people's thinking and decisions, by using indirect interventions ('designing helpful new choices'), rather than conventional enforced/imposed change, which generally fails, or makes matters worse.

Importantly Nudge theory should be applied ethically for the good of people , not for what is a reflective essay their exploitation, or to benefit corporations and enrich leaders, and this ethos is stipulated in the Nudge theory model. See and learn about Nudge theory - and teach others about it too. It's potentially life-changing, and how do u write introduction, world-changing too. ideas on illustrating change management issues. When people are confronted with the essay contests for teens, need or opportunity to how do u write an essay change, especially when it's 'enforced', as they see it, by communication, the organization, they can become emotional. So can the managers who try to manage the change. An Essay Introduction! Diffusing the emotional feelings, taking a step back, encouraging objectivity, are important to enabling sensible and constructive dialogue. Zsofia! To this end, managers and trainers can find it helpful to use analogies to assist themselves and other staff to look at u write an essay, change in a more detached way.

On this site there are several illustrations which can be used for this purpose, depending on the type of change faced, and the aspect that is to be addressed. Here are a few examples, useful for team meetings, presentations, one-to-one counselling or self-reminder, particularly to communication help empathise with others facing change: On the Stories section look at 'Murphy's Plough' (negative thinking = obstacle to how do u write an essay change) and 'We've always done it that way' (not questioning need for change). Both good aids for understanding and explaining why people - all of us - find it difficult to change assumptions, conditioned thinking, habit, routine, etc. Look also at the Monkey Story, as to how policies, practices, attitudes and even cultures can become established, and how the tendency is to accept rather than question. Just as the state of 'unconscious incompetence', needs to be developed into 'conscious competence' to provide a basis for training, so a person's subjective emotion needs to be developed into objectivity before beginning to help them handle change. None of us is what essay immune from an essay introduction, subjectivity, ignorance or denial. The lessons and reminders found in zsofia stories and an essay introduction, analogies can help to show a new clear perspective. Aesop's Fables section has other short and beautifully simple analogies useful for effective illustrating aspects of causing or dealing with change, for how do u write example (all on the Aesop's Fables section):

The Crow and the Pitcher (change being provoked by pressure or necessity) The North Wind and the Sun (gentle persuasion rather than force) The Lion and The Ass (enforced change - might is right) The Crab and his Mother (lead by example and 2009 1st year, evidence - or you'll not change people) The Miller, his Son and the Ass (no single change is likely to please everyone - everyone wants something different) The Oak and the Reeds (the need for tolerance - changer or 'changees') The Rich Man and the Tanner, (time softens change - given time people get used to things) The Ass and the Mule (agree to reasonable change now or you can risk far worse enforced change in the future) job reorganization, task analysis, job transfer due to an essay IT development or outsourcing etc.

First see the modern principles which underpin successful change. It's not always easy or perhaps even possible to consider matters at such depth, but try to if you can, or try to persuade others above in their ivory towers to think about the fundamental integrity of the situation, instead of short-term profit, or satisfying greedy shareholders. There are various approaches to task analysis and essay, job reorganization, whether prompted by outsourcing or IT development. Generally change process of this sort is an essay pragmatic, and it's difficult to identify transferable processes, templates, etc. Examples of 2009 intermediate 1st year papers, projects don't generally find their way into the public domain, although the likelihood is u write introduction increasing of essay, government project pdf's becoming available on the web as this sort of information is increasingly required to be available to the public.

IT vendor case studies and trade journals of the IT and outsourcing sectors can also provide indicators of an essay, best practice or transferable processes. Essays! There are some useful software tools now available, which are helpful, especially if the change involves a high level of how do u write introduction, complexity and a large scale. As a broad guide when managing this sort of change, these aspects are important for the process: Really understand and clarify mutual expectations about the level of detail and cost that the project requires. Term! Sometimes it's possible to see it what you need on a table napkin. How Do An Essay Introduction! The organisational context, and other strategic drivers, personalities and politics are often more significant influences than the task analysis. If you are a consultant or project manager, agree expectations on a pragmatic basis. Agree the templates and systems to schweger be used and the the level of report data required for the decisions to be made. Assume that the situation can be improved - it generally can be, so while it's essential to capture all activities based on current jobs, many of these can be absorbed, superseded, updated, etc., when you begin to look at the ideal situation ('blank sheet of u write an essay introduction, paper') possibilities, so; A new overview analysis enables fresh unencumbered look at the whole, which suggests new and better ways of doing things. A flip chart and a few creative minds are the main pre-requisites. It makes a great workshop session and top custom term papers, is good for creating ownership and buy-in for major change.

It's a good process also to cascade down to departments to bring out ideas for improved processes and new ways of doing things. U Write An Essay! In terms of capturing all current processes and inputs, the individual job analysis templates need to enable jobs to term be broken down into sub-tasks, and how do an essay, elements within sub-tasks. This is a tricky one, and not practicable in certain X-Theory cultures, nevertheless, be aware of the high probability of upsetting people whose jobs are threatened by change and try to develop a way of anticipating and reducing damaging fall-out. Treat people at risk with the respect they deserve and avoid keeping them in the dark - involve threatened people wherever possible so they can see what's happening and why. What Is A Reflective Essay! If possible encourage the executive team to take the same humane approach, and try to establish counselling and support resources if none exist already. Analyses are more helpful if they identify critical vs essential task elements - this will help you to help the decision-makers to be more pragmatic (not least because by applying pressure to how do an essay some of the freud interpretation of dreams, 'essential' elements will reveal them to be habitual dispensable or traditional replaceable elements). Flow diagrams identify subtask linkage (inter and intra), variation and how do u write an essay, chronology.

Behaviour needs identifying aside from processes. Standards, performance tolerance, % reliability, etc., should be indicated in task analysis as applicable to the sub-task or activity concerned. other points about people and change. Strong resistance to change is often rooted in deeply conditioned or historically reinforced feelings. Essay For Teens! Patience and tolerance are required to help people in these situations to an essay introduction see things differently. Bit by bit. There are examples of this sort of freud interpretation of dreams essay, gradual staged change everywhere in the living world.

The Psychological Contract is a significant aspect of change, and offers helpful models and diagrams in understanding and managing change - potentially at a very fundamental level. Use Nudge theory - to understand potential hidden influential factors on people's thinking. Also, certain types of how do introduction, people - the zsofia thesis, reliable/dependable/steady/habitual/process-oriented types - often find change very unsettling. People who welcome change are not generally the an essay introduction, best at being able to work reliably, dependably and contests, follow processes. The reliability/dependability capabilities are directly opposite character traits to how do mobility/adaptability capabilities. Certain industries and is a reflective essay, disciplines have a high concentration of staff who need a strong reliability/dependability personality profile, for u write introduction example, health services and nursing, administration, public sector and government departments, utilities and essays effective communication, services; these sectors will tend to have many staff with character profiles who find change difficult. See the personality styles page to how do an essay introduction help understanding about different types of people. Age is another factor. Papers! Erik Erikson's fascinating Psychosocial Theory is u write an essay helpful for understanding that people's priorities and motivations are different depending on their stage of life. The more you understand people's needs, the better you will be able to manage change. Be mindful of people's strengths and weaknesses.

Not everyone welcomes change. Take the papers, time to understand the people you are dealing with, and an essay, how and why they feel like they do, before you take action. business development driven change. Business development potentially includes everything involved with the quality of the business or the organization. Business development planning first requires establishing the essays effective, business development aims, and then formulating a business development strategy, which would comprise some or all of the following methods of development.

sales development new product development new market development business organization, shape, structure and processes development (eg, outsourcing, e-business, etc) tools, equipment, plant, logistics and supply-chain development people, management and communications (capabilities and training) development strategic partnerships and distribution routes development international development acquisitions and disposals. Generally business development is partly scientific, and partly subjective, based on the feelings and wishes of the business owners or CEO. There are so many ways to develop a business which achieve growth and how do an essay, improvement, and rarely is just one of these a single best solution. Business development is what some people call a 'black art', ie., difficult to analyse, and difficult to apply a replicable process. Planning, implementing and managing change in a fast-changing environment is increasingly the freud interpretation essay, situation in which most organizations now work. Dynamic environments such as these require dynamic processes, people, systems and culture, especially for managing change successfully, notably effectively optimising organizational response to market opportunities and threats.

Key elements for success: Plan long-term broadly - a sound strategic vision, not a specific detailed plan (the latter is how do an essay introduction impossible to predict reliably). Detailed five years plans are out of date two weeks after they are written. Focus on detail for establishing and measuring delivery of immediate actions, not medium-to-long-term plans. 2009 Intermediate Question Papers! Establish forums and communicating methods to enable immediate review and decision-making. Participation of interested people is essential. This enables their input to how do u write an essay be gained, their approval and commitment to be secured, and automatically takes care of communicating the actions and expectations. Empower people to intermediate question make decisions at a local operating level - delegate responsibility and power as much as possible (or at least encourage people to make recommendations which can be quickly approved). Remove (as far as is possible) from strategic change and approval processes and teams (or circumvent) any ultra-cautious, ultra-autocratic or compulsively-interfering executives.

Autocracy and interference are the biggest obstacles to establishing a successful and sustainable dynamic culture and how do u write an essay introduction, capability. Term Papers! Encourage, enable and develop capable people to be active in how do introduction other areas of the organization via 'virtual teams' and 'matrix management'. Scrutinise and optimise ICT (information and communications technology) systems to enable effective information management and key activity team-working. Use workshops as a vehicle to review priorities, agree broad medium-to-long-term vision and what is a, aims, and to agree short term action plans and implementation method and accountabilities. Adjust recruitment, training and development to accelerate the development of people who contribute positively to a culture of empowered dynamism. Use Nudge theory - to understand potential hidden influential factors on people's thinking. 'troubleshooting' tips for investigating apparent poor performance. If you are ever give the job of 'troubleshooting' or investigating (apparent) poor performance, perhaps in another location or business belonging to your own organisation, or perhaps as a consultancy project, here are some simple tips: Actually 'troubleshooting' isn't a great word - it scares people. Use 'facilitator' or 'helper' instead. It sets a more helpful and cooperative tone.

On which point, you could well find that the main issue will be people's resistance and defensiveness to someone coming in to their organisation do what you are doing. When you overcome that challenge, then you can start comparing what's happening with what the organisation sets out to do (mission, values, goals, priorities, targets, key performance indicators, processes, measures); how the people feel about things (staff turnover, retention, morale, attitudes); and how customers and suppliers feel about an essay introduction things too (actually go out and visit customers, and ex-customers particularly). You must observe protocols very diligently - introduce yourself properly to top custom people and explain who you are and how do introduction, what you are doing. Don't assume that your task gives you the right to be secretive, or to have access to zsofia schweger thesis anyone or anything without permission. Ask for help. Ask for introductions. How Do U Write Introduction! Ask for permission.

Be polite and courteous. Respect people more than you would do normally, because they will be sensitive, understandably so. Look at the Sharon Drew Morgen facilitation method, which helps with the style and approach you should use. You must aim to help, enable and reflective essay, facilitate discovery and clarity, not work in isolation, as an outsider, who's come to 'sort things out'. See Nudge theory.

It will alter how you understand change management, and how to approach it. And then be led by the people as to what can be improved. You should adopt the role of introduction, a researcher and enabler rather than a problem solver. Plan lots of questions that will help people to tell you how they feel about things - customers and 2009 question papers, staff and introduction, suppliers - and what they think can be done to term improve things. Avoid asking 'why' unless they're really trusting you and working with you. How Do Introduction! Used early, 'why' puts people on intermediate question, the defence and you'll not find out u write an essay, anything.

Look at the customer relationship materials as well - customers will tell you what's best to focus on, and will give you an early opportunity to interpretation facilitate some improvement responses. Also look at the employee motivation survey material. It's likely that you'll have to write a report and recommendations afterwards, in which case try wherever possible to how do an essay involve the people in what you say about them. Let there be no surprises. Be constructive. Accentuate the positive. Be straight and open with people.

Enjoy the experience. Zsofia Schweger Thesis! Be respectful and helpful to people and they'll be respectful and helpful to how do you. John P Kotter's 'eight steps to successful change' are ©John Kotter 1995-2002.

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Uncovering Exchange 2010 Database Availability Groups (DAGs) (Part 4) If you would like to be notified of when Henrik Walther releases the next part in how do u write this article series please sign up to our MSExchange.org Real-Time Article Update newsletter . If you would like to read the other parts in this article series please go to: In part three of 2009 intermediate 1st year papers, this multi-part article, we created the log and database LUNs, changed the path for the logs and databases, created the DAG, and how do u write an essay added the servers to the DAG. In this fourth part of this multi-part article uncovering Exchange 2010 Database Availability Groups (DAGs), I am going to show you how to configure miscellaneous interesting DAG settings and essays effective perform the how do most typical operational tasks. Fasten your seatbelt and let us get moving!

Suspending and Resuming Database Copies. In situations where you have a planned outage/maintenance window or if you perhaps need to seed a database, the first step is to suspend replication for the involved database(s). This can be done both via the Exchange Management Console (EMC) and the Exchange Management Shell (EMS). To do so via the EMC, you simply right-click on the respective database copy/copies and select suspend in the context menu. Figure 1: Suspending a Database copy. To do the same via the EMS, you can use the following command: Suspend-MailboxDatabaseCopy –Identity MDB02E14EX02. In order to resume a database copy using the EMC, you just right-click on schweger, it again and choose Resume Database Copy . Figure 2: Resuming a Database Copy. If you rather want to resume it using the EMS, run the how do an essay following command:

Resume-MailboxDatabaseCopy –Identity MDB02E14EX02. Moving the Active Database Copy to another DAG Member (aka Switchover) When you have a planned outage and need to take a DAG member that holds one or more active database copies down for maintenance, it’s considered best practice to what is a manually move any active database copies (aka performing a switchover) to u write another DAG member in the DAG. To move an active database copy to intermediate 1st year papers another DAG member using the EMC is accomplished by right-clicking on the respective database(s) and selecting Move Active Mailbox Database in the context menu as shown in Figure 3 . Figure 3: Activating a Database Copy. This brings up the Activate a Database Copy wizard ( Figure 4 ). Figure 4: Activate Database Copy wizard.

Here we can see the name of the database and on which DAG member it currently is mounted. To move the how do an essay database copy to another DAG member, click Browse . Figure 5: Selecting the server holding the what is a essay database copy to be activated. When you have selected the how do u write an essay DAG member on which the databse copy should be activated, click OK . Intermediate 1st Year Question Papers? Then decide if you want to how do u write an essay change the what database mount dial settings on how do, the target mailbox server. As you can see in Figure 6 its set to None (change nothing) by default. If you want to change the interpretation essay current setting (set to Best Availability by u write introduction, default) instead choose Lossless , Best Effort , or Best Availability . Figure 6: Automatic database mount dial settings. Here’s a description of each of the available database mount dial settings: Lossless: (when selecting Lossless the effective communication database will not mount automatically until all logs generated on the active database copy has been copied to how do an essay the passive database copy) Good Availability: (when selecting Good Availability, the database will mount automatically as long as you have a copy queue length less than or equal to 6. If the zsofia schweger copy queue holds more than 6 log files, the database will not mount) Best Effort: (with Best Effort the database will mount no matter the copy queue length. Be careful with this setting as you could loose a lot of mailbox data!) Best Availability: (with Best Availbility the database will mount automatically as long as the copy queue length is u write less than or equal to 12. If the copy queue length is more than 12, the database will not be able to mount)

Unless there’s a specific reason to chose another database mount dial override than the setting currently configured, leave this option at None . When you are ready to essay activate the database copy in the target mailbox server specified, click Move . To activiate a database copy using the EMS, we can use the how do introduction following command: Move-ActiveMailboxDatabase MDB01 -ActivateOnServer E14EX02 -MountDialOverride:None. There may be times where you need to seed a database copy for one reason or the papers other. This can both be done via the how do an essay introduction Exchange Management Console (EMC) and the Exchange Management Shell (EMS). Let us take a look at how to accomplish this via the EMC. If it is freud of dreams essay not already the case, the first thing we must do is to suspend replication for the passive database copy we want to seed. Figure 7: Suspending the how do u write an essay introduction Database Copy. You will now be presented with a dialog box where you can enter a comment on thesis, why replication for the database copy is being suspended. Figure 8: Dialog box for optional comment. When suspended, right-click on the database copy once again and select Update Database Copy . Figure 9: Selecting update Database copy in the context menu. The Update Database Copy wizard will now appear ( Figure 10 ).

Figure 10: Update database copy wizard. As you can see we have several options in this wizard. U Write An Essay? We have the option of specifying the source server that should be used for seeding. This is a really cool feature since you are no longer limited to seeding from an active database copy as was the case in with Exchange 2007 LCR/CCR/SCR. Figure 11: Selecting source seeding server. We can also choose the behavior when files exist in intermediate 1st year papers the target path. In addition, we can specify whether replication to an essay introduction this database copy should be resumes or whether it should be leaved suspended. Lastly, we can select which DAG network should be used to seed the schweger thesis database copy. Again a great feature, which although it was an option in Exchange 2007 SP1, was very cumbersome.

Figure 12: Selecting DAG network used for seeding database copy. When you have chosen your settings, click Update in order to seed the database copy. U Write Introduction? When the seeding has completed, click Finish . Figure 13: Seeding process completed successfully. If you rather want to use the EMS to top custom term papers seed a database copy, the how do u write an essay introduction above could be accomplished by first suspending replication with: Suspend-MailboxDatabaseCopy –Identity MDB02E14EX02. Figure 14: Suspending a database copy via the Exchange Management Shell. Then run the following command to re-seed the database copy: Update-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity MDB02E14EX02. Figure 15: Seeding a database copy via the Exchange Management Shell. Changing the Log file Replication Port. In Exchange 2007, the Microsoft Exchange Replication Service copies log files to the passive database copy (LCR), passive cluster node (CCR) or SCR target over Server Message Block (SMB).

With DAGs in Exchange 2010, the asynchronous replication technology no longer relies on SMB. Instead, Exchange 2010 uses TCP/IP for essay for teens, log file copying and seeding and, even better; it provides the option of specifying which port you want to use for log file replication. By default, DAG uses TCP port 64327, but you are free to specify whatever port you want to u write an essay introduction use. To see the current port used, you must use the schweger Get-AvailabilityGroup cmdlet with the introduction –Status parameter. To see the port used in our lab environment, use: Get-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup DAG1 –Status | fl. Figure 16: Checking Replication port settings for a DAG. To change the port used we must use Exchange Management Shell (EMS) as this option isn’t included in the Exchange Management Console (EMC). Freud Of Dreams? Since this setting is configured per DAG, we must use the Set-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup cmdlet . For instance to how do an essay introduction change the port for the DAG in top custom our lab to TCP port 7580, we must use the how do introduction following command:

Set-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup DAG1 -ReplicationPort 7580. When the port have been changed, we can verify the new setting using: Get-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup DAG1 –Status | fl ReplicationPort. Figure 17: Checking new Replication port settings for a DAG. Now when updating a database copy, we can see that TCP/7580 is 1st year question papers used (below I ran Netstat –an while the u write an essay database copy were updated. Figure 18: Checking the new replication port is used (by running Netstat -an) With DAGs in Exchange 2010, we can enable or disable compression for seeding and top custom term papers replication activities over one or more networks in a DAG. How Do An Essay Introduction? This is a property of the DAG itself, not a DAG network. Top Custom Term? The default setting is InterSubnetOnly (which means compression is used when replication occur across subnets) as shown in Figure 19 . Figure 19: Checking Network Compression settings for how do introduction, a DAG. The available values are:

Disabled (disabled on all networks) Enabled (enabled on freud of dreams, all networks) InterSubnetOnly (enabled for inter-subnet communication only) SeedOnly (enabled only for seeding) If we for how do u write introduction, instance want to enable network compression for log file copying and zsofia schweger thesis seeding on all networks in a DAG in our lab environment, we would use the following command: Set-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup DAG1 -NetworkCompression Enabled. Figure 20: Checking new Network Compression settings for a DAG. With compression enabled for log file seeding and replication, you can expect around 30% compression ratio. As you can see, there’s really no reason why you should disable network compression unless you for an essay, instance use a 3rd party WAN/network optimizer that doesn’t support DAG network compression. With DAGs in Exchange 2010 there’s now native support for encryption of log file seeding and replication activities. In Exchange 2007 log files are copied over essay for teens, an unencrypted channel unless IPsec has been configured. DAG leverages the encryption capabilities of how do, Windows Server 2008/R2, that is 2009 1st year question DAG uses Kerberos authentication between each DAG member. Network encryption is a property of the how do u write an essay introduction DAG itself, not the DAG network.

Available settings for the network encryption property are: Disabled (network encryption not in essays use), Enabled (network encryption enabled for seeding and replication on how do u write introduction, all networks associated with a DAG), InterSubnetOnly (the default setting meaning network encryption is used across subnets) SeedOnly (network encryption in use for seeding on all networks in 2009 intermediate 1st year question a DAG). The default setting is InterSubnetOnly . Figure 21: Checking Network Encryption settings for a DAG. If you want to how do introduction change the network encryption settings, you can use the Set-DatabaseAvailabilityGroupcmdlet . Zsofia Schweger? For instance, if you wanted to enable encryption for log copying and seeding on all networks, you would use the following command: Set-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup -identity DAG1 -NetworkEncryption Enabled. Figure 22: Checking new Network Encryptions settings for a DAG. Configuring Replay Truncation Lag Time. The Standby Continuous Replication (SCR) feature that was introduced with Exchange 2007 SP1 gave us the option of how do u write, replicating one or more databases from a stand-alone mailbox server, cluster continuous replication (CCR) cluster, or single copy cluster (SCC) to a target stand-alone mailbox server or standby cluster (CCR or SCC failover cluster where only the passive clustered mailbox role has been installed). SCR could both be used for replicating storage groups locally in a datacenter or remotely to servers located in essay contests a secondary or backup datacenter.

In addition to being able to replicate data to how do an essay multiple targets per storage group, SCR also introduced the essay concept of replay lag time and u write an essay truncation lag time. With replay lag time you could configure the thesis Microsoft Exchange Replication service to wait for how do, a specified amount of time before log files that had been copied from the reflective SCR source to an essay the SCR target(s) were replayed. The default value for replay lag time was 24 hours and thesis could be configured with a value of up to 7 days (if configured to u write an essay 0 seconds there were a 50 log files lag time so that a reseed wasn’t require when a lossy failover has occurred). The idea with replay lag time was to have a database from back in time, which could be used to recover if active database copy/copies on the SCR source server(s) were struck by logical corruption. This way to can stop replication before the logical corruption is contests for teens replicated to the SCR target server(s) and thereby prevent loosing data. Truncation lag time could be used to specify how long the how do an essay introduction Microsoft Exchange Replication service should wait before truncating (deleting) the intermediate papers log files that had been copied to an essay introduction the SCR target server (s) and replayed into the copy of the 2009 intermediate papers database(s).

The maximum allowable setting for truncation lag time is 7 days and how do u write an essay the minimum is 0 seconds, which will remove the truncation delay completely. With truncation lag time you could recover from failures that affected the log files on the SCR source server(s). DAG also supports replay lag time and truncation lag time we know from SCR in interpretation of dreams essay Exchange 2007 SP1. They work pretty much the same way although controlled via a new cmdlet ( Set-MailboxDatabaseCopy ). These features have been improved a little with Exchange 2010. Introduction? For instance, the replay lag time option now has a maximum setting of freud interpretation of dreams essay, 14 days instead of how do u write, 7 days as was the case with Exchange 2007 SP1.

Also bear in essays mind that unlike SCR in Exchange 2007 SP1, replay lag time in u write an essay introduction Exchange 2010 does not have a hard-coded replay lag of of dreams, 50 log files (even when set to 0 seconds). As you can see in Figure 23 both replay and an essay truncation lag time are disabled by default. Figure 23: Default Replay and Truncation Lag time setting for essays effective, a Mailbox database. The purpose with replay and truncation lag time in Exchange 2010 is pretty much the same as with SCR in Exchange 2007 SP1 that is to protect against database logical corruption and store logical corruption. What’s interesting and an essay new with Exchange 2010 is you now can use lagged database copies in for teens combination with legal hold etc. I won’t dive further into how do an essay introduction, lagged database copies in this multi-part article. Instead I’ll cover this topic in a future articles here on MSExchange.org. Blocking a Database Copy from being activated. There are situations where you might want to block a passive database copy (or even server) in a DAG from being changed activated (changed to the active database copy). Good thing is the Exchange Product group thought about this kind of scenario.

You can do exactly that using a so called activation policy. It’s not possible to use the EMC to set this, but using the 2009 intermediate papers EMS, you can use the Suspend-MailboxDatabaseCopy cmdlet for this purpose. Yes correct, this cmdlet is an essay typically used for suspending replication for 2009 intermediate 1st year papers, a database copy, but when run with a special ActivationOnly parameter, you can block a database copy from u write an essay being changed to the active database copy during a failover. For instance, if we want to block MDB01 on E14EX02 from ever being activated during a failover, we can use the following command: Suspend-MailboxDatabaseCopy –Identity MDB01E14EX02 -ActivationOnly. Figure 24: Blocking a database copy from is a being activated. Notice this does not suspend replication for the database copy and thereby result in, an over time, huge copy queue.

Only the database copy is being block from activation. Figure 25: Replication not suspended when using Suspend-MailboxDatabaseCopy with the an essay ActivationOnly parameter. When this cmdlet is run with the ActivationOnly parameter, the database copy cannot be activated until the following command is run: Resume-MailboxDatabaseCopy –Identity MDB01E14EX02. Figure 26: Unblocking a database copy from essays being activated. Ok so what if I wish to block all databases on a DAG member server? Will I then need to run the u write an essay above command on all database copies on the particular server? Luckily not. Contests? We have a similar command that works on the server level.

If oyu want to u write an essay block a DAG member instead use the Set-MailboxServer with the D atabaseCopyAutoActivationPolicy Blocked parameter. For instance if I wanted to block DAG member E14EX02 from having database copies activated, I would use the zsofia schweger following command: Set-MailboxServer –Identity E14EX02 – D atabaseCopyAutoActivationPolicy Blocked. Figure 27: Blocking a DAG member from being activated. To allow database copies to how do u write introduction be activated again, I would replace “ Blocked ” with “ Unrestricted ”:

Set-MailboxServer –Identity E14EX02 – D atabaseCopyAutoActivationPolicy Unrestricted. Figure 28: unblocking a DAG member from being activated. There’s also an “ IntrasiteOnly ” option which allows database copies to be activated in freud interpretation the same Active Directory site . Alright, we have reached the end of part four as well as the end of this multi-part article that hopefully helped you get a better idea of how to deploy DAGs as well as customize miscellaneous settings related to DAGs. Fear not though, this was definitely not my last article covering DAGs in some form. If you would like to be notified of u write an essay, when Henrik Walther releases the next part in this article series please sign up to essay our MSExchange.org Real-Time Article Update newsletter . If you would like to read the other parts in this article series please go to: TechGenix » MS Exchange Server » Exchange 2010 » Uncovering Exchange 2010 Database Availability Groups (DAGs) (Part 4) Hacked LinkedIn accounts spread new phishing campaign. Save your money: Prevent ransomware with File Server Resource Manager.

Checking Out the TMG 2010 Virtual Private Network Server - Part 1: Overview of an essay introduction, VPN Configuration. Get a free copy of the contests for teens new SolarWinds Permissions Analyzer! Uncovering Exchange 2010 Database Availability Groups (DAGs) (Part 4) TechGenix reaches millions of IT Professionals every month, and has set the how do standard for providing free technical content through its growing family of websites, empowering them with the answers and tools that are needed to freud set up, configure, maintain and enhance their networks.

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5 Famous People Who Blatantly Lied (And Barely Paid For It) If we've ever made you laugh or think, we now have a way where you can thank and support us! Honesty is the best policy, unless you are just super good at lying. In that case, the u write an essay world is but an all-you-can-eat buffet respect, fame, and 2009 papers, riches. If you want proof, well . Joseph McCarthy is to date the only U.S. senator notorious enough to how do an essay, have an entire -ism named after him. He was almost single-handedly responsible for elevating Cold War America's suspicion of left-wing politics to effective communication, the status of foaming, tinfoil-hat paranoia. Don't like wearing a tinfoil hat? Maybe you prefer ushankas, comrade?! But when he was elected in 1947, it was largely on the back of u write an essay introduction, his outstanding war hero record. He campaigned with the nickname Tail-Gunner Joe and used the slogan Congress needs a tail-gunner, referring to is a reflective, his outstanding service in the war as a -- give us a moment to look it up here -- tail-gunner.

He'd been awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and numerous air medals, received a letter of commendation from Admiral Chester Nimitz, and u write introduction, even held the record for 2009 intermediate, most ammunition expended in a single day in the Pacific Theater. How Do An Essay Introduction. If you asked him, he was Rambo 30 years before Rambo was a thing, and interpretation of dreams essay, America needed him in Congress, although, when you really think about it, there's no reason why being good at shooting should be a requisite for political office. Here's the thing, though -- pretty much none of that even happened. It eventually came out that McCarthy's entire war record was a collection of embellishments and outright bullshit. Most significantly, Tail-Gunner Joe was, hilariously, never actually a tail-gunner.

He did sit in the tail-gunner's seat a few times, but only as a passenger. U Write An Essay. He even shot the 2009 question papers gun! But never in combat. McCarthy was as much a tail-gunner as your 10-year-old nephew is a trucker because he got to u write, sit on your lap once and you let him pull the air horn. 2009 1st Year. At this point, we're lucky Tail-Gunner Joe wasn't just some military sex act. Introduction. He did earn the schweger record for how do u write introduction, expending the most ammunition in a single day.

Technically. Because apparently, shooting at trees in a non-combat zone because he was bored actually counts. He did receive a commendation from Admiral Nimitz, but he wrote it himself and top custom term papers, Nimitz signed it among a plethora of other medal commendations. Also, despite only flying nine missions, his Distinguished Flying Cross lists 32. Why? Because McCarthy said so. An Essay. That's why. Questioning my military recond?

You know who else does that? Pinkos! Jack Kerouac gave birth to the beat generation with his 1957 book On The Road , and 2009 1st year papers, with it came Simon Garfunkel, Bob Dylan, and bad jazz poetry. When asked about it, Kerouac would claim he wrote the how do introduction entire thing in one, frenzied, three-week bender, having jury-rigged his typewriter with a single continuous roll of butcher paper because changing sheets would have ruined his flow. He could only work with rolling papers. The scroll, at least, is true -- it's kept in pristine condition at top custom, Indiana University.

And it may be true that he hammered it out in just three weeks, sweating booze and how do u write an essay introduction, pills. Term. But that's much less impressive considering that he had the whole thing pretty well memorized by that point -- it was the u write introduction sixth or seventh draft. Kerouac claimed that On The Road was a work of spontaneous prose, cultivating the is a legend that he was one of those assholes who could vomit out a whole book perfectly on the first attempt. But when you hear the word spontaneous you don't usually think ten years, which is how long the how do introduction book actually took to write. 2009 Papers. Kerouac was George R.R.

Martin, without the ruthless speed. How Do U Write. The first notes were actually scribbled down in zsofia schweger thesis journals as early as 1947, and the next decade was spent cranking out how do introduction, draft after draft while getting shot down by publishers who weren't interested in his quirky book about a couple of guys driving around, listening to jazz, and doing drugs. Eventually, in 1957, Viking finally agreed to top custom term, publish the how do u write damn thing, and that's when Kerouac began promoting it as something he pulled out of 2009 intermediate 1st year papers, his ass in under a month. U Write. After all, what kind of lame-ass square spends years tweaking, editing, and freud interpretation essay, perfecting a story word by word? A true artist can just mash the keyboard and shit out a classic! Also, this photo was a candid selfie. In 2003, virtually no one noticed when a relatively unknown bureaucrat named Michael Brown was appointed by President Bush to the head of FEMA (the Federal Emergency Management Agency). This seemed like a pretty significant promotion, given that Brown had, until then, only been Assistant City Manager of Emergency Services in Edmond, Oklahoma. U Write. Going straight from essays effective coordinating fire engines in a city of 80,000 to managing the emergency services in all of how do u write, America is a big jump, but hell, his record seemed pretty solid, and zsofia schweger, given that FEMA isn't that important an agency anyway, he was as good a pick as anyone.

Right? It says here that you can drive a bus? HIRED! Unfortunately for Brown (and, you know, everyone else), he was still the head of an essay introduction, FEMA when Hurricane Katrina hit in 2005. Essay For Teens. You might recall that the emergency response to Katrina didn't go very well.

Almost as if, say, the person organizing the introduction response had no goddamned idea what he was doing. Brown resigned after the Katrina disaster, but after a little journalistic investigation, it turned out that he was even less qualified than anyone had suspected. It turned out Brown wasn't actually Assistant City Manager of Emergency Services in Edmond at what is a, all, as his resume said. He was Assistant to how do an essay introduction, the City Manager. Those extra words matter, because they're the difference between being second-in-charge and essay, being the guy who buys the u write an essay Starbucks. NBCUniversal Television Distribution. The Office had literally 95 episodes about this. He was just a step above intern. Though, according to his boss (the actual City Manager) he was pretty good at his job -- he always turned up to work on time, and wore a suit every day (that's actually his defense). In case you're tempted to believe Brown just worded his resume badly and accidentally stumbled into intermediate 1st year question papers a major federal government position, that wasn't even his worst attempt to stretch the introduction truth.

Brown also claimed that he'd worked as a Professor of Political Science at the University of 2009 1st year, Central Oklahoma, but the University doesn't seem to have any record of him being on the faculty. He also claimed to have been a prominent lawyer, but there's almost no record of an essay introduction, his law career beyond grading bar exams. Those who can't, teach. For Teens. Those who can't teach grade papers. But, hey, who hasn't lied on an application before?

The only way it could have gone wrong is if there was some kind of, we don't know, federal emergency that suddenly needed managing. U Write An Essay. Between 2012 and reflective, 2016, media outlets including Forbes and The New York Times published interviews with a young millennial stand-up comic named Dan Nainan. How Do U Write An Essay Introduction. He had an inspiring story; he was a successful young dude working at Intel in New York, moving up the chain at a big corporation while still having wistful dreams of essays effective, pursuing a career in comedy. Then 9/11 happened, and his life changed. He took comedy seriously, worked hard at it, won a bunch of how do u write, stand-up contests and term papers, achieved his dream. How Do Introduction. The dream of fashion sense still eludes him. But amidst the top custom flurry of attention given to Nainan, The Daily Beast started noticing a few odd details, such as his bizarrely fluctuating age.

In 2012, an article mentioned that he was 36, but then in how do u write introduction 2016, four years later, another article said that he was 35. Either Nainan was living some kind of effective communication, slow Benjamin Button syndrome, or something fishy was happening. So The Daily Beast decided to dig deeper, until they found a Maryland traffic court case with Nainan's name on it. His date of birth was listed as May 1961. The media's favorite millennial poster boy is so far outside the millennial age bracket that he could be a real millennial's dad. How Do U Write An Essay Introduction. He could have kids too old to be cool. Interpretation Of Dreams. It turns out that it's been something of an open secret for how do u write an essay introduction, some time in comedy circles that Nainan might really be a guy in his late 50s pretending to be a hip youngster. It's just rarely brought up, because pissing off Dan Nainan is is a essay more trouble than it's worth -- he's actually kind of a giant asshole, who challenges other comics to physical fights and was once arrested for punching a journalist (who also worked for how do an essay, The Daily Beast, though they swear this isn't, like, a revenge thing). When directly confronted with the zsofia thesis overwhelming evidence that he was lying about his age, Nainan responded by doubling down. U Write Introduction. According to him, it's his birth certificate that's wrong.

That doesn't explain the wrinkles, but you do you, man. English celebrity chef Robert Irvine has hosted numerous food shows such as Dinner: Impossible and Restaurant: Impossible . He got those jobs on the back of an amazing resume that boasted feats such as helping bake the cake for zsofia, Prince Charles and Lady Diana's wedding, being a personal chef to how do, the President of the United States, attaining a knighthood, having a B.S. in food nutrition from the University of schweger, Leeds, and owning a castle in Scotland. What does Gordon Ramsay have? A colorful vocabulary? Just an OBE? FUCK OFF! These claims held for years because, well, nobody ever decided to check and see if they were true. At least, not in u write his home country.

It wasn't until Irvine travelled to communication, St. Petersburg in Russia and started throwing his weight around like he was top shit and how do u write an essay, referring to himself as Sir Robert Irvine, Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (seriously) that Russian journalists began asking the tough questions about who this asshole actually was. After a few phone calls, they realized that just about nothing he'd ever claimed about himself was correct, beyond knowing how to cook. Like, generally speaking, he knows how a stove operates, and that's about it. According to intermediate question papers, The St. Petersburg Times expose, first of all, the biggest role he had in creating Charles and Diana's cake was helping pick out some of the u write an essay fruit that went into it, and that's just because he happened to be studying at the school where it was being made.

He did actually work at what, the White House -- cooking for how do introduction, Navy personnel. Never once did anything he cooked come within smelling distance of the president or any executive staff. Hell, there's not even any record of zsofia, his B.S. from the University of Leeds. How Do U Write An Essay. So, technically, I do have a BS degree. But the part about the knighthood, that was surely true, wasn't it? is a phrase that zero of you are saying.

Irvine claims that one was a rumor he started while drunk in a pub one night, as is the story about essay, owning a castle. To be fair, which of us has never claimed to have a British knighthood after a few beers, not even once? Or owning just a small castle? Come on, you've all done that. The devastating smackdown that unraveled Irvine's web of lies (which any journalist anywhere could have done, just, any time they liked, with a cup of coffee, a croissant, and a phone book) led to Irvine being fired from his TV show, and giving a public apology for u write introduction, lying about his entire career.

And where is he now? Oh . What Is A Reflective Essay. actually he's totally fine. He got another TV show, and still opens new restaurants like none of this ever happened. It turns out it really is that hard to un-famous someone. Nathan Kamal lives in how do u write introduction Oregon and writes there. Effective. He co-founded Asymmetry Fiction for all your fiction needs. Rachel P. makes up her own lies on Twitter.

Follow her @plehcar. Join Jack O'Brien and Cracked staffers Carmen Angelica, Alex Schmidt, Michael Swaim, plus comedian Blake Wexler for a retelling of history's biggest moments you didn't realize everyone was drunk for. U Write Introduction. Get your tickets here. Subscribe to our YouTube channel, and check out If Insurance Companies Were Honest, and other videos you won't see on the site! Follow us on Facebook, and essay, let's be best friends forever. If we've ever made you laugh or think, we now have a way where you can thank and support us! ‘Rules’ That Make No Sense, But Everyone Follows Anyway. Absurd Logic Health Gimmick Companies Expect You To Believe. 15 Ads That Would Definitely Make The World Better. The Realities Of Hunting The 2nd Deadliest Animal In Africa. 5 Reasons To Make Smart Memes For Cracked.

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Study About Transverse Cracks In The Continuous Casting Of Steel Billets. IN LAXCON STEEL LTD a scrap metal are melted in high temperature furnace, a temperature near about 1500'c to 1600'c.After this melted metal bring out to Continuous Casting Machine through ladder ,then this mould of how do u write introduction metal poured into tundish car machine. There are stages in top custom papers machine like approl, intermediate section, withdrawal, auto cutter machine. But quality problems such as Cracks, Rhomboidity, Porosity, Lapping, seems Crack, Piping, Centre Looseness, Ovality, Blow holes, Pin holes and Breakouts are often observed in continuously cast steel billets. These defects create a problem in metal which is cast.

On the one hand fundamental knowledge about heat transfer, solidification and mechanical behavior of steel was applied to identify the origin of a quality problem in the process. We finally study about Cracks and effect of cracks and also find solution to reduce Transverse Cracks. TABLE OF CONTENT. LIST OF TABLE xvi. LIST OF FIGURES xviii. LIST OF SYMBOLS xxvii.

1. Company introduction 1. 1.1 Company Introduction 1. 1.2 Product list 1. 2. literature Review 7. 2.1 Previous studies on the microstructure of steel 7. 2.2 Previous work on detecting the defects 10. 2.3 Previous research on the cooling 11. 2.4 A review on u write introduction previous numerical modeling on top custom cooling cast steel 13. 3. Problem Summary 15.

3.1 Introduction 15. 3.2 Defects in how do introduction detail 15. 3.3 Objective of project 16. 4. Steel Grade 17. 5. Methodology to determine transverse crack 18. 5.1 Testing facilities and quality control in laxcon steel ltd. 18. 5.2 Methodology to determine the origin of defects 19. 5.3 Metallographic observations 19.

5.4 Defect analyzed 20. 5.4.1 Transverse Cracks 20. 5.4.2 Appearance in contests for teens Billet 20. 5.4.3 Causes and Solutions 21. 6. Strategies for dealing with Transverse Cracks. 22. 7. Techniques for Crack Minimization 23. 7.1. Control of Composition 23. 7.1.1 Relevance of u write an essay hot ductility to schweger thesis transverse cracking 23. 7.1.2 Composition Effects 24.

7.2 Mould Heat Transfer 25. 7.2.1 Mold Powder Composition and how do Properties 26. 7.2.2 Mathematical Treatment of Steel Solidification in the Mould 26. 7.2.3 Results and Discussion 30. 7.2.4 Conclusions 32.

7.3 Mould oscillation 33. 7.4 Secondary cooling 34. 7.4.1 ANSYS analysis for secondary cooling water cooling effect in continuous casting of steel billets. 35. 7.4.1.1 Mathematical model 36. 7.4.1.2 Thermal stress model 39.

7.4.1.3 Calculation region and finite element discretization 40. 7.4.1.4 Calculation and results analysis. 41. 7.4.1.5 Verification and term papers analysis of heat transfer model. How Do An Essay Introduction! 42. 7.4.1.6 Discussion on thermal stress 45. 7.4.1.7 Summary 46.

8. Result and Discussion 47. 9. Conclusion 49. 10. Future Enhancement 50. Mechanical properties of steel''''''''''''''''''''''.17.

Different techniques for the study of the defects and the information. ''''''20. Mold powder composition and properties'''''''''''''''''..26. Parameters used in the calculations and their variation values'''''''''. 27. Main process parameters of CCM'..''''''''''''''''''. 36. Verification of surface temperature of billet for all covered situation''''''. 43. LIST OF DIAGRAM.

Temperature profile of the key point ( all covered ). ''''''''''''''42. Temperature profile of the key point ( 90% covered ). ''''''''''''. 42. Temperature profile of the key point ( 80% covered )'''''''''''''..43. Comparison of temperature profile in the 3 situation''''''''''''''44. LIST OF FIGURES. Square and hexagonal bright bars. ''''''''''''''''''''.

2. Continuous casting of steel billets. ''''''''''''''''''''..5. Transverse crack in steel billet''''''''''''''''''''''15. Transverse cracks on observed by communication, magnifying glass'''''''''''''..20. Transverse cracks on observed after etching with HCL''''''''''''21. Temperature calculation grid in the vertical symmetrical half section of the steel casting copper mould. How Do U Write Introduction! '''''''''''''''''''''''''''.

27. Calculated solid steel thickness along the mould walls at mould thermal conductivities: (a) = 50, (b) = 150, (c) = 250, (d) =350 (W/m-K). ''''''''''''''31. Calculated solid steel thickness along the mould walls at essay contests for teens steel thermal conductivities: (a) = 25, (b) = 30, (c) = 35, (d) = 40 (W/m-K). ''''''''''''''''..32. the finite element meshes and key point of the calculation region. '''''''..40. Scheme of the secondary cooling water covering all the how do u write introduction, surface of bloom''''..41. scheme of the secondary cooling water covering part of the surface of bloom'''41. the stress field at the exit of FSSCZ '''''''''''''''''''45. the stress field at the exit of 2009 FSSCZ'''''''''''''''''''.46. CHAPTER 1 COMPANY INTRODUCTION.

1.1. U Write Introduction! COMPANY INTRODUCTION. LAXCON STEELS LTD. Ever since its foray into the steel trade in what is a 1978,Gopal Group has established itself as name to reckon with, in the the steel.over the years, through meticulous quality control and outstanding customer care, it has built a reputation for quality, reliability and integrity. What started off as a small steel plat with a capacity of 2400 MT/year, Gopal Group has now grown into an organization with manufacturing facility at multiple locations with a combined production capacity of 120000 MT/year, strong value of family run enterprise backed by u write an essay, an assembly of industry's most talented professionals has given the group its current forms stature. Laxcon Steels LTD. is a very well-known player in the global market in the stainless steel industry.Thanks to its strategic planning, ultra-modern facilities and exceptional team. The Group companies work hand in hand to produce the what is a reflective, finest stainless steel products, with a focus to fit each client's requirements.Company offer superior quality bright bars in a variety of grades, sizes, tolerances and Precision Quality. 1.2 PRODUCT LIST. Size range -5mm ' 10mm. Length- 3 to 6.5 meters.

Cold drawn, centerless ground, peeled and polished, smooth turned bars. Precision quality shaft bars. Figure 2: Precision quality shaft bars. Size range -6mm ' 75mm. Length- 3 to 6 meters. Heat treatment- Soft annealing, solution annealing, quenched and tempered. Square and hexagonal bright bars. Figure 3: Square and hexagonal bright bars. Size range -16mm ' 45mm. Length- 3 to how do u write 6 meters. Heat treatment- soft annealed, solution annealed, oil and water tempered.

Size- 25*25, 30*30, 40*40, 50*50, 60*60, 65*65. Length- upto 6 meters. Hot rolled, annealed pickled, shot blasted. Forged and turned round bars. Figure 5: Forged and turned round bars.

Length- 3 to 2009 1st year question papers 6 meters. Heat treatment- soft annealed, solution annealed, oil and water tempered. Hot rolled round bars. Figure 6: Hot rolled round bars. Size range- 16mm ' 120mm. Length- up to 8 meters. Hot rolled surface. Continuous casting of steel billets.

100*100, 120*120, 200*200, 220*220, 280*280, 300*300. Length- up to 8 meters. Suitable for rerolling, forging and ring rolling. Square, fluted, round. Spot ground, free of surface cracks.

CHAPTER 2 Literature review. This section provides a review on previous research work on the topics related to how do u write introduction this research work to understand the effective communication, extensive work done on the topics related to how do u write an essay this research work. These literature reviews are partly with focus on the research studies on soundness and other anomalies generated during solidification whose effects determine the critical cooling rate of hot solidified strands of steel. The other part of the review section reviews the zsofia schweger, publications on the topics which are used to achieve the objective of this dissertation. Hence, the following sections presents literature review in studies on the microstructure defects and the source of the how do introduction, defects, monitoring of microstructure by the NDT method, effect of inclusion, on the microstructure, experimental study on cooling rate and numeral simulation and modeling methods on top custom the study of phase transformation. 2.1 Previous studies on the microstructure of steel. R. Kiessling, J. Harza, D. Caffarrelli, S. Ramalingma. Studies on MnS inclusions have shown that they are responsible for chip fracture during machining by initiating cracks as a result of increasing stress in the machining shear zone [1,2].

D. B. Evteev, Berg Huettenmann. some research work shows these additive elements may also degrade steel quality. Sulfur content can increase the extent of cracking at high temperature [3]. The susceptibility of steel to overheating depends on alloying and micro-additions [4]. C. J. Adams, H. How Do! F. Hall, A Fuchs.

Segregation of sulfur and 2009 1st year question phosphorous from the liquid film at grain boundaries into the interdendritic region creates a low ductility and strength region and, consequently, forms cracks in the microstructure of u write an essay introduction steel between the solidus and 2420 degrees Fahrenheit [5-7] K. Matsubara, H. Mori. The ratio of precipitation of MnS in the matrix and precipitation of papers AlN along grain boundaries generates cracks in steel during solidification by forming different low ductility regions at introduction different temperature ranges [8,9]. Formation cracks are inevitable during solidification and may increase in the cooling process of hot solid steel slabs to room temperature or any future heat treatment and machining of the steel. Brimacomb J, Sorimachi K. Cracks and essay contests for teens microcracks are more serious than other defects occurring during solidification. Brimacombe and Sorimachi have classified the origin of an essay introduction cracks systematically [10]. Grill, Brimacombe, Weinberg. Internal stresses during surface reheating create cracks because of zero ductility of steel at solidification temperature [11]. During solidification, internal and surface cracks degrade the interpretation essay, steel quality.

Surface cracks may be caused by how do, uneven heating, which introduces transverse and longitudinal facial cracks [12]. L. I. Motozenskii. Internal cracks formed during solidification can be classified into five groups of halfway and midway cracks, start or centerline cracks, diagonal cracks, bending cracks and pinch roll cracks. For Teens! The work of an essay Morozenskii et al. [13], shows that near solidification elongation to rupture in steel with carbon content of 0.17 to 0.2% is minimum. This sudden change can be caused by an unbalanced rate between radiation and convection cooling along secondary cooling zones or different boundary conditions such as below the mold where the hot surface is cooled suddenly by water spray. Zsofia Thesis! At weak or non-ductile regions, resultant tensile stress of surface expansion generates cracks between the dendrites in the columnar zone perpendicular to the equiaxed zone tensile stress.

Likewise, centerline cracking is due to tensile stresses raised by how do, abrupt change in temperature of the centerline with completion of solidification because of bad machine conditions at the final solidification area or too low secondary water-cooling [13]. International Iron and Steel Institute; Committee on term Technology; Brussels; 1986. Longitudinal cracks can be formed from stress at the meniscus during solidification by how do u write, high mold wear and poor mold surface as well as insufficient strand support below the mold, including caster or mold misalignment and thermal stresses due to non-uniform cooling [14]. Transverse cracks in steel may be generated by zsofia schweger, too large mold taper, poor oscillation conditions, a low surface temperature at straightening and abrupt cast speed changes. Uneven cooling of the surface also causes local type star cracks [14]. G. U Write An Essay Introduction! van Drunen, J. K. 1st Year Question Papers! Brimacombe, F Weinerg. Too high or too low cooling of slab's side surfaces as well as bad equipment conditions can introduce triple point cracks in the slab [15]. H. Mori, Tetsu to Hagane, L Schmit, H Fredriksson. Tensile stress raised by a high, different, temperature at surfaces making an how do u write obtuse corner creates diagonal cracks at right angle to the strain [16,17] Y. 2009 Intermediate Papers! Aketa, et al.: Tetsu-To-Hagan. Billet dimensions control the effect of corner radius on longitudinal cracks such that more cracks are formed in larger billets [18]

Experiments on how do introduction tundish temperature show that after a critical temperature, the length of cracks increases as the temperature of the tundish increases [19]. 2.2 Previous work on detecting the defects. Malkiewicz T, Rudnik. Experimental workers identify non-metallic inclusions by metallographic, chemical and petrographic methods [20]. B. G. Zhang, L. Thomas. Zhang and Thomas [21,22] discussed more than 30 methods for detecting the anomalies under two main categories of direct and indirect methods. 2009! However, the how do introduction, direct technique measurements are accurate but they are costly compared to indirect ones [22]. Debiesme [23] explained the Hydrogen Induced Crack test and Magnetoscopy for sheet tests. detected the strains with a resolution of zsofia schweger about 25 x 10-6 using a non-contact laser speckle technique, in a thermal fatigue test performed by how do, cyclic induction heating and essays effective communication internal cooling test rods. Furuya et al. [24], described the ultrasonic fatigue test technique for how do u write detecting the inclusions. Drury J. C, http://www.ndt-ed.prg/, 2006 ,http://www.matter.org.uk/steelmatter/casting, 2000. More background about NDT and its applications can be found in many websites, books, and literature ( [25-27]

However, five sources of freud essay stress fields developed during cooling slabs, explained previously, affect the steel matrix in the same way. Accumulating of friction forces at the contact surface between matrix and inclusion create a stress concentration zone. This zone is believed to how do an essay introduction be responsible for changing the intermediate 1st year question papers, shape of the inclusion [28]. Waudby P. E, Baker T. J., Charles J., Gove KB, Charles JA. For either type, characteristics of the how do introduction, stress field around the interpretation, inclusion are generated by distribution, concentration and rate of change of the stress field. U Write An Essay Introduction! Some of the main effective factors in inclusion deformation [29-31], include morphology, strength of inclusion and matrix, composition, inclusion-matrix interface, temperature, strain and strain rate, particle size, stress state, second phase particles and frictional forces at interfaces. N. Nagayama, T. Abe and S. Of Dreams! Nagaki 1989. Nagayama and his co-workers [32] used a Von Mises yield criterion in their FEM analyses to model the deformation of rigid-plastic inclusions in an inhomogeneous material with different yield stresses. Pietzyk, M. Kusiak J., Kusiak K., Grosman , Milenin A. A. Work on large plastic deformation of an inclusion-matrix system for different inclusion shapes were subsequently published [33,34]

2.3 Previous research on the cooling. Varde A. Introduction! S., Maniruzzaman M., Rundensteiner E. A., Sisson R. Is A Essay! D. Parameters affecting the cooling rate include: quenchant type, quenchant temperature, agitation velocity, viscosity, agitation type, aging, polymer foaming, polymer degradation, part material, geometry, part area, part volume, density, specific heat, oxide layer, surface roughness, suspension, carbon content, grain nature, grain size, plastic deformation and number of u write an essay other issues [35]. Parameters, which shall be considered in the quenching process of a bulk material, are desired suspension, cooling rate, cooling nature, heat transfer coefficient, residual stress, desired hardness and other material properties, distortion tendency, and 2009 question papers cracking potential [35]. MacKenzie D. S., Lambert D.

Quenching is accelerating cooling with a quenchant such as air, water, oil, salt, natural or vegetable base quenchant, polymers and other chemical compounds [36].Three stages of quenching for how do a liquid quenchant are: vapor stage, boiling stage and convection stage [36]. Heat transfer coefficient is a function of fluid properties, geometry, surface condition, and agitation. Heat transfer depends on heat transfer coefficient, time and location within the bulk material [36]. First, any participation may vary the shape of the TTT diagram and, secondly, as the reflective, cooling rate increases, the residual stresses stored in the bulk material increases as well [37]. There are many publications on the quenching topic, which provides the information about u write introduction different quenchants and the thermodynamic and chemical properties [38]. Heat Treating and Surface Engineering, Indiana.

Quenching is very common in the manufacturing process, which is known as quench hardening. Factors, which are considered in quenching hardening, are residual stresses and distortion, prevention of crack initiation, microstructural evolution necessary to improve properties (wear resistance and toughness), and meeting the desirable hardness [39]. Baker T. J., Gove K. B. Charles J. A.; Application of quenching in steel manufacturing is done to obtain the essay, desired mechanical properties such as, hardness, yield strength, and ductility [40]. Bhadeshia H. U Write An Essay! K. D. H.

Bhadeshia [41] has suggested some modes to decrease the schweger thesis, temperature of solid-solid phase transformations. Driven force for polymorphic austenite to ferrite transformation is introduction, greater than grain growth by two orders. Kobasko's [42] experimental results showed that the 2009 1st year papers, tendency for crack formation is higher with a range of cooling rates and it decreases for the cooling rate higher or lower than this critical cooling rate range as a function of quenching rate. The factors governing the behavior of material at high temperature are time, temperature, stress, and environment or atmosphere. Prince J. U Write An Essay! C., Marono R., Leon F. At low temperature mechanical behavior like fatigue damage, is zsofia schweger thesis, controlled by how do u write an essay introduction, the level of the mean stress, amplitude of stress fluctuation and what reflective number of how do u write an essay cycles [43]. Kametani [44] analyzed the length of longitudinal cracks on is a reflective essay the surface of continuously cast steel slabs and an essay introduction gave crack frequency as a function of crack length using fractal distribution methods. Berns H., Broeckmann C., Weichert D, Gross-Weege A., Weichert D, Broeckmann C. Tensile test experiments on tool steel showed that cracks initiate (or exist) in effective the carbide band growth straight forward in the matrix and after kink type dislocation in the carbide rich region split in the same direction of the region then jump to how do u write the next carbide band and essays effective communication grow in the same manner and so on [45,46] Donnay B., Jeraman J. C., Leroy V., Lotter U., Grossterlinden R., Pircher H,Parker K. V. Computer simulations have been deployed in the last decade to u write lower the cost of microstructural experiments.

Much work on modeling of thermo-mechanical treatments of intermediate steel has provided the capability to predict the final microstructure [47-48] 2.4 A review on previous numerical modeling on cooling cast steel. Smolijan [49] predicted the strain and residual stress evolution within a geometrically complex specimen (e.g. cylinder, cones, spheres, etc) dealing with estimation of microstructure and hardness distribution after quenching using a mathematical method based on how do the finite volume method and Jominy tests results. Schweger! He did not consider in his simulations any existence or formation of anomalies or defects before or after quenching. Mishnaevsky L., Lippmann N., Schmauder S.

Mishnaevsky [50] et al. discussed the u write an essay, crack propagation under dynamic load in real and quasi-real idealized two-phase microstructure of carbide in top custom term papers the steel matrix microstructure model for tool steel material. Beer, F.P., Johnston, Jr., E.R. (1981) Some researchers [51] have used a Global Extraction element-by-element (GEBE) to simulate crack propagation to get a faster results compare to other methods. McClintock F. A, Lay B., Brunet M., Boivin M. Other researchers modeled the nucleation and propagation of voids under tensile forces [52,53]

Ueda Y., Tanigawa M. , Murakawa. Macro crack propagation simulation with size effect properties in some work [54] was presented to model ship collision, which poses a huge numerical model. Yu H. J.; Brechnung von Abkuhlungs, Leblond j. B., Mottet G, Devaux J. C. Different researchers [55,56] investigated the effect of phase transformation on how do u write an essay the residual stresses within quenched bodies. These residual stresses have an important role in changing the soundness of the steel during cooling.

Wittmann [57] used the contests, Fictitious Crack Model (FCM), to predict the crack formation in composite material. CHAPTER 3 PROBLEM SUMMARY. During our industrial training we found a quality problem in steel billets, which is cast by cone casting machine. A transverse cracks is how do an essay, commonly obtained quality problem in steel billets. 3.2 Defects in Detail. The surface crack of CC slab is an important problem, which affected the continuous caster yield and the quality of the intermediate papers, slab. If it affected little the slab would be sized, if it affected seriously it would bring on molten steel bleeding or rejected slab, therefore the continuous caster yield and the quality of the slab can be improved greatly. In the u write, producing of the hull structur, the transverse corner crack in the slab occurred more, which made difficult to plan the producing and freud interpretation affected the order of u write structural steel finished punctually. During continuous casting of steels, longitudinal and transverse cracks tend to occur in brittle temperature ranges by thermal and mechanical deformation. In the temperature dependence of hot steel ductility, two critical temperature ranges can be found namely at temperatures near to solidus and at intermediate temperature range.

In this case, the trough of plasticity falls in the temperature range between 1100??C and 700??C in which the straightening operation of continuously cast products is carried out. The combination of low ductility and induced tensile strain may cause transverse cracking in 1st year papers this temperature range. To prevent the occurrence of how do an essay cracks, the better understanding on physical mechanical, metallurgy properties of continuously cast steel in the course of its cooling is a necessary condition. 3.3 Objective of project. Primary work to know the defects occur in zsofia thesis steel billets.

Based on the work result find out the defects.To minimize the defects with improving quality of steel billets.Referring the entire process the sample have been evaluated to check the how do introduction, possibilities on our various study and analysis for freud providing the best quality and reducing the defects in steel billets. CHAPTER 4 STEEL GRADE. Generally a many types of steel grades are used in how do u write introduction billet production, according to the customer demand. We consider a 20CrMnTiH steel grade. Table -1: Mechanical properties. Treatment Thermal ref.

Tensil strength 615 N/mm2. Yield point .395 N/mm2. Reduction of area 15% Absorption energy (j) 47. Table-2: Chemical properties. Other Tr 0.04-0.10. (SOURCE- LAXCON STEELS LTD.) CHAPTER 5 METHODOLOGY TO DETERMINE TRANSVERSE CRACK. 5.1 Testing Facilities and Quality Control in LAXCON STEEL LTD. Optical Emission Spectrometers.

Leco Gas Analyzer for essays effective H2, O2, N. Mobile Handheld Spectrometers. State of the Art Chemical Testing Laboratory. Radio Activity Testing. Brinell Hardness Testing. Rockwell Hardness Testing. Poldy Hardness Tester.

Jominy Hardenability Testing. Magnetic Particle Inspection. Impact Testing Machine (Assited with Notch, Broaching Profile Projector) Optical Microscope for Testing Microstructure / Grain Size / Defect Depth / Delta Ferrite Measurement, Non-Metallic Inclusion Rating, Decarburization. Universal Testing Machine for Testing Tensile Strength / % Elongation / % Reduction in u write C/S Area. Proof Test by Electronic Extensometer. Optical Pyrometer for Temperature Measurement. 5.2 Methodology to determine the origin of defects. The determination of the origin of defects includes the recording and analysis of general information. It is important to know the frequency of defect, position in same corner or face of the billet, position in essays effective bar or wire rod.

It is u write an essay, also relevant an exhaustive study of the top custom papers, general appearance of the defect by naked eye or with magnifying glass. After that, the observation of polished samples, generally transverse cuts of the rolled products or of the billet and microscopic study at u write an essay introduction higher magnification, etching with reagents give insight defects features. The information of the continuous casting and the rolling processes are necessary and can give relevant data. Sometimes it could be important to design the follow up of intermediate papers heats in how do u write an essay introduction the metal shop and rolling mill processes. Table- 3: Steps to determine defects. Frequency, position, in one of the strands or in one of the faces of the zsofia schweger thesis, billet, position in wire rod, influence of some steel grade, etc. 5.3 Metallographic Observations.

The metallographic observation of various samples gives key information when the origin of a defect needs to be determined .often; it is not possible to find out the how do introduction, origin of defect with just observation of transverse cuts under microscope, without an term papers idea of the general aspect of the defect. In Table 4 different techniques for the study of the defects and the information that can be taken from them, regarding to the origin of defects are monitored. Table- 4: Different techniques for the study of the defects and the information. With naked eye or with magnifying glass. 5.4 Defect analyzed. 5.4.1 Transverse cracks. Transverse cracks, although not always detect in how do an essay the inspection of billets, may also give place to serious defect in the rolled products. 5.4.2 Appearance in billet. Figure 10 and Figure 11 shows the aspect of transverse cracks in continuous casted billets observed by magnifying glass and by HCL etching closed to a surface, the 2009 1st year question papers, cracks are looks as if it has been formed at high temperature, probably in the mould.

Figure 10: Transverse cracks on observed by magnifying glass. Figure 11: Transverse cracks on observed after etching with HCL. 5.4.3 Causes and Solutions. Transverse cracks can form in u write an essay introduction the mould or during strengthening. When they are located in essay any corner, they are likely to be formed due to tensile effort related to sticking, this can be worsen by deep oscillation marks When the cracks are present only in the corner belonging to inner radius, they could be formed by tensile efforts during strengthening. This is common when corner temperature is within low ductility range. How Do U Write! A sound approach to solve the problem is to set proper secondary cooling to papers avoid the dangerous temperature range in the corners during strengthening. STRATEGIES FOR DEALING WITH TRANSVERSE CRACKS. Control of Composition. Composition strongly influence transverse cracking by how do, their influence on term hot ductility.

Choose C and alloy additions to avoid peritectic solidification, and particularly avoid 0.1-0.13%C. Mould Heat Transfer. The degree of steel superheat has a noticeable; Effect on solidified steel thickness.Surface structure can be influenced by heat transfer in the mould. It is important to consider the type of u write an essay mould powder used, particularly viscosity, mould thermal conductivity. Depth of these oscillation marks can be reduced by increasing the mould oscillation frequency and/or decreasing the stroke to reduce the contests, heal time.

Slab straightening is carried out within this ductility trough, transverse cracking can result.A steep temperature gradient through the slab thickness is also desirable using this cooling strategy, to minimize the penetration of an essay introduction surface cracks which may form in cold spots. Mechanical stresses can be introduced by poor alignment of the components of the machine, and from many other sources, but of most relevance to 2009 intermediate transverse cracking is the how do u write an essay, straightening operation. Straightening may be carried out over a single point, or by multipoint straightening. Essays Communication! The effect of these two types of straightening operation on transverse cracking are not clear, but there are reasons to suppose that multi-point bending will not improve hot ductility: strain rate will be reduced, which will reduce hot ductility; more time will be allowed for how do u write an essay dynamic precipitation; and at least for Nb containing steels, stress relaxation between each bending point seems to be minimal. CHAPTER 7 TECHNIQUES FOR CRACK MINIMIZATION. 7.1. Zsofia Schweger! Control of Composition. It is evident from the an essay introduction, above discussion that composition, and particularly the use of micro alloying elements, can strongly influence transverse cracking by their influence on hot ductility. This suggests that to minimize cracking a steel composition should be chosen which maximizes hot ductility bearing in mind the final product requirements.

The following guidelines should help to maximize hot ductility and minimize transverse cracking: Choose C and is a reflective alloy additions to u write avoid peritectic solidification, and particularly avoid 0.1-0.13%C. Use V or V/N combinations to replace Nb. Make V additions to Nb steels. Consider Ti additions. 7.1.1 Relevance of Hot Ductility to Transverse Cracking. In qualitative terms, hot ductility as measured in laboratory tests appears to term papers bear some relationship to the observations of transverse cracking; the detrimental effects of Nb, N and Al on transverse cracking are all reflected in reductions in hot ductility. However, there are few examples of more quantitative relationships between measures of hot ductility and transverse cracking.A relationship between the number of transverse cracks per slab and the reduction of area in a hot tensile test.

Above a reduction of area value of 75%, no cracked slabs were observed. A value of 60% reduction of area to how do u write an essay introduction avoid slab cracking, 30-40% is more realistic. It can therefore be seen that there is considerable discrepancy between the suggested values, and it is likely that such a value can only be ascribed to specific tensile test conditions and for teens slab assessment methods. As well as the depth of the ductility trough, the how do an essay introduction, temperature at which it occurs is also significant; if slab straightening can be carried out essays effective communication, outside the temperature range of how do u write an essay introduction low ductility, then transverse cracking may be avoided. Considering the upper temperature range, the simple hot tensile test is unlikely to give a reliable indication of this temperature as dynamic recrystallization occurs during tensile testing giving a marked increase in ductility.

However, the strains encountered at the surface of essay contests continuously cast slab are only. 1-2%, which is insufficient for recrystallization to occur. The hot bend test should give a more reliable indicator of this temperature than the tensile test. Considering the lower end of the u write an essay, ductility trough, recovery of ductility is associated with the top custom term papers, completion of how do an essay a certain proportion of transformation, and therefore the hot tensile test should give a more reliable indication of this temperature. However, the higher strains encountered during the tensile test may again give misleading temperatures, due to the influence of strain in transformation, and the bend test is freud essay, again more likely to give accurate indications. 7.1.2 Composition Effects. There have been several studies of the influence of V on u write an essay hot ductility using hot tensile tests.

The results from all the various studies are consistent in that V additions of up to 0.1% at low N contents (0.005%) have only a very slight detrimental effect on hot ductility by what is a reflective, broadening the ductility trough. At higher N levels, the effect of how do u write V additions becomes more marked, and the ductility trough. Becomes deeper and intermediate 1st year papers broader. In fact, a good relationship can be constructed between the product VxN, and the depth and breadth of the how do u write an essay introduction, ductility trough, it should also be noted that in this example it is only at the highest VxN product, 0.1%Vx0.01%N, that hot ductility approaches that of a 0.028%Nb steel. There have been a very large number of studies of the effect of papers Nb on hot ductility, and the activity in this field is probably related to the perceived detrimental effect of Nb on slab surface quality. U Write! These results can be summarised by saying that Nb additions deepen and term broaden the how do u write introduction, ductility trough to extend to higher temperatures. Nb additions of as little as 0.017% had a detrimental effect, and ductility continues to deteriorate up to at least 0.074%. As with Ti, the effect of S on the hot ductility of essays effective communication Nb steels also depends upon the thermal cycle used in the test. For steels reheated to an essay introduction a solution temperature prior to testing, S has little effect on hot ductility.

However, for in-situ melted test pieces increasing S levels have a detrimental effect on essay contests hot ductility, as more S is taken into solution to precipitate on grain boundaries. When examining the influence of Ti on hot ductility, it is important to consider the austenite grain size. In some reports, the apparent benefit to u write an essay hot ductility of Ti additions is due to a refinement of grain size. It is most appropriate to top custom term evaluate the influence of Ti on hot ductility using samples melted in-situ, as this technique produces approximately similar grain sizes for Ti and Ti free steels. There are relatively few reports looking at the influence of u write an essay introduction Ti additions to C-Mn-Al steels after in-situ melting, and relationship between Ti and hot ductility appears to be complex. 2009 Intermediate 1st Year! In situations where large TiN precipitates can form, such as at slow cooling rates or high values of TixN, hot ductility may be slightly improved by Ti additions, but for conditions which generate large volume fractions of fine TiN particles, such as a stoichiometric ratio of Ti:N in low N steels, hot ductility can deteriorate with Ti additions. (Source :laxcon steel ltd.) 7.2 Mould Heat Transfer. Figure 12: Mold heat transfer. 7.2.1 Mold powder composition and properties.

Table -5: Mold powder composition and properties. Composition Basicity SiO2 CaO MgO Al2O3 TiO2 Fe2O3 MnO2 P2O5 Na2O K2O F B2O3 Li2O. 1.10 38.60 42.28 0.89 6.34 0.19 0.36 0.03 0.03 3.64 0.12 7.14 0 0.37. Properties Solidif. Temperature. (??C) Softening Temperature. (??C) Melting Temperature. (??C) Viscosity at u write an essay introduction 1300 ??C.

1149 1170 1180 3.12. 7.2.2 Mathematical treatment of 2009 1st year papers steel solidification in an essay the mould. Table -6: Parameters used in the calculations and their variation values. Parameter Units Varied. Values Constant value Remarks. copper mould W/m-??k 50, 150, steel W/m-??k 25, 30, Super heat Degrees 5, 10, 15, Mould wall thikness Mm 12, 16, (calculated) W/m2-??k 250 Constant.

Prandtl's number Pr 7 Assumed. Figure 13: Temperature calculation grid in the vertical symmetrical half section of the steel casting copper mould. Where the parameters T, Q^m, ??k, . t are temperature ( ' ), heat rate of what is a reflective heat generation/consumption (W/m^3) thermal conductivity (W/m-??k), time (s) and diffusivity (m/s^2), respectively. Based on the above assumptions, (1) can be simplified to. This equation represents transient heat transfer by conduction in u write an essay introduction one direction, and coupled with appropriate boundary conditions evolved in the cooling process, it can be solved to give temperature distributions in the calculation domain.

The method adopted in solving this equation is by the use of what is a reflective essay finite difference technique and solving the resulting equations explicitly. Referring to the nodal distribution both in the steel and mould wall areas shown in Figureure 13. This equation represents transient heat transfer by how do introduction, conduction in one direction, and coupled with appropriate boundary conditions evolved in the cooling process, it can be solved to give temperature distributions in the calculation domain. The method adopted in solving this equation is by the use of essays effective communication finite difference technique and solving the resulting equations explicitly. Referring to the nodal distribution both in u write introduction the steel and mould wall areas shown in term papers Figureure 13. Where, the first term indicated the temperature at node n at the current time (p+1) which is calculated from temperatures of the introduction, previous time step (p).

F_o in (7) is known as Fourier's number which is given as. ' T'_N^(p+1)='2F'_o [T_(n-1)^p+B_i T_w ]+(1-'2F'_o-2B_i F_o)T_N^p (9) Where R_e and P_r are the dimensionless Reynold's and Prandtl's numbers and effective communication f is the friction factor, respectively .The friction factor can be expressed as. Equations (7) and (9) are solved with the appropriate parameters shown in Table 1 using MS Excel worksheet by which temperatures at each node in the steel and u write an essay mould wall were solved at accumulative time intervals covering the whole residence time of the steel in papers the mould. The total residence time of steel in the mould was determined from knowledge of mould height and volumetric steel casting speed. This time period was divided into a number of calculation time intervals satisfying the how do, stability requirements of 2009 intermediate question papers (7) and (9). Calculation of the increasing solidified steel shell thickness as the steel moves down the mould were performed at different conditions. When pouring steel into u write introduction, the mould, the what is a essay, amount of superheat which it exhibits (the temperature above the solidifying temperatures) is how do an essay introduction, of paramount importance on how fast the steel starts to top custom papers solidify when it enters the mould. Solidified steel shell thicknesses were calculated using different superheats of 5, 10, 15 and 20 degrees. It can be seen from the Figure that the an essay, degree of steel superheat has a big effect on the thickness of solidified steel. Schweger Thesis! However, steel superheat is not too easy to control and is dependent on a number of factors which include steel.

Mould thermal properties such as its thermal conductivity controls the how do u write, rate of freud essay heat transfer from the how do u write an essay, steel to the cooling water, i.e., the cooling and solidification processes.This factor has been varied in what reflective essay the calculations and the results of these variations are shown in Figure 14. A factor in steel casting which is of great importance is an essay introduction, changing steel chemical composition. Based on customer specifications of the type of steel required, steel chemistry can change many time in the casting operation. Different steels have different thermal conductivities, and hence, this factor was examined in these calculations. As can be seen from Figure 15. Figure 15: Calculated solid steel thickness along the mould walls at freud interpretation essay steel thermal conductivities: (a) = 25, (b) = 30, (c) = 35, (d) = 40 ( W/m-??k ) Changing steel thermal conductivity resulted. in great variations in the calculated solidified steel shell thickness. How Do U Write Introduction! This factor has the most effect compared to the other previously discussed factors. Calculations of top custom papers solidified steel shell thicknesses within the casting copper mould during casting of steel billets showed that.

The degree of steel superheat has a noticeable effect on solidified steel thickness, and hence, this factor should be well controlled in the casting operation. Mould thermal conductivity has little affect on the solidified steel thickness, for a mould thickness of 12 mm, and hence, casting mould material could very well be changed. Thermal conductivity of molten steel is how do, of great importance in the casting operation, and hence, great care should be taken when changing steel grades of differing thermal conductivities. 7.3 Mould Oscillation. Figure 16: Mould Oscillation. Oscillation marks are the most recognizable feature of continuous casting and can be related to the subsurface defects that can be found on product rolled from continuous cast slabs.The physical surface defect of the oscillation marks themselves does not necessarily pose a significant problem in many grades. Papers! But many subsurface defects have been found to be associated with oscillation marks, especially when the mark can form a hook.

These defects include entrapped argon bubbles, inclusions and elemental segregation. The oscillation marks also act as nucleation sites for surface cracking and transverse cracks often form in the roots of the oscillation marks in transverse crack sensitive grades. The formation mechanism of the how do an essay introduction, oscillation mark is the increased solidification rate in the meniscus area of the mold due to movement of the meniscus towards the freud of dreams essay, mold wall during the how do introduction, negative strip time of the mold. This indicates that it is possible to affect meniscus mark formation by either changing the heat transfer rate in the meniscus area of the essays, caster or by changing the position of the u write an essay introduction, liquid steel meniscus, or by affecting both issues. This leads to the potential for some completely novel approaches to either eliminating or minimizing the oscillation marks that are found on cast slab surfaces. 7.4 Secondary Cooling. There is a wide ductility trough associated with microalloyed steels, and if slab straightening is carried out within this ductility trough, transverse cracking can result. If slab straightening is carried out at temperatures either above or below this temperature range, cracking should be minimized. Both these different cooling strategies ('soft' cooling and 'hard' cooling) have been used on various machines around the world, with some success in reducing transverse cracking.

Figure 17: Secondary cooling zone. A variant on the use of different cooling strategies which has been used to what essay minimize crack formation during the rolling of hot charged slabs is the u write an essay introduction, use of slab quenching. This technique rapidly chills the top custom papers, slab surface layers below the transformation temperature, leading to the development of a fine grain structure at the surface.This fine grain structure then. restricts the formation and propagation of an essay introduction cracks. Non-uniform secondary cooling can promote thermal stresses, and hence lead to freud interpretation of dreams essay cracking.This requires good nozzle design and maintenance, and preferably the use of air-mist cooling. 7.4.1 ANSYS analysis for secondary cooling water cooling effect in continuous casting of steel billets. Billet quality, one of the introduction, crucial problems in steel industry, is mainly determined by the secondary cooling water distribution, thus the 2009 1st year question, key to achieve improvement of it is to establish rational cooling system. Concerning the formation of external and internal cracks, scholars from an essay introduction, different countries have established the solidification heat transfer model and stress model. On the condition of the freud interpretation essay, same specific water flow rate, the spraying effect of how do an essay introduction secondary cooling water can be evaluated by to way in reflective the productive process of u write introduction bloom, which cover all thye bloom surface or part of the surface. with the help of finite element analysis software of ansys, the model of solidification and thermo-mechanical analysis have been developed.

20CrMnTiH bloom is choosen as object.maine process parameters of this CCM are as below. Table 7: Main process parameter. ITEM PROCESS PERAMETER. Machine type Curve type. Section of schweger thesis billet 200mm*200mm.

Casting speed 0.70 m/min. Length of 1st segment of sec. Cooling zone 1.19 m. Length of 2nd segment of sec. Cooling zone 1.49 m. Length of 3rd segment of how do introduction sec. Cooling zone 2.30 m. Length of is a reflective essay 4th segment of sec.

Cooling zone 2.30 m. Length of 5th segment of sec. How Do Introduction! Cooling zone 1.20 m. Distance from meniscus to straighning point 14.70 m. Basic hypothesis of thermo-mechanical mathematical model. Into the heat transfer and mechanics of billet during solidification process from meniscus to air cooling zone a two dimension unsteady heat transfer model has been developed on term papers the basis of the two dimensional slice method in moving coordinate system for simplification, several assumptions are made as below. The steel meets the requirements of the small deformation theory, and billet deformation is tiny compared with its cross section.

The billet cross section is assumed to be in the state of plane stress. The constraints of mold wall bound on the billet, and they are removed as soon as the slice comes out of mold. The impact of longitudinal thermal stress is how do u write an essay introduction, ignored. Heat transfer analytic model. The two dimensional unsteady heat transfer equation is.

Where ,[c] and [??] are heat capacity matrix and heat conduction matrix of the system respectively, is heat load array equation (2) is schweger thesis, a series of first order differential equation about u write an essay time, and the temperature distribution of node [T] [C] can be obtained after time domain is dispersed. Where (' T'_(c )) casting temperature, The heat transfer of billet has axisymmetric feature, and the diffusion boundary of the center symmetry axis can be considered as adiabatic condition. In the mold q_s^m=A-B'T (6) In the 2009 question papers, secondary cooling zone q_s^c=h^c (T_b-T_w) (7) Radiation q_s^r=[?? ??(T_b+273)^4 - (T_0+273)^4] (8) ?? = 5.670373(21) ??10'8 W m'2 K'4 (10)

7.4.1.2 Thermal stress model. Thermal stress of the billet can be calculated by u write, obtaining the changes of the 2009 question, temperature field, and thus the constitutive equation is built- In the equation (11) Total strain increment, Elastic strain increment,

Strain increment changed with temperature, Thermal strain increment, Zero displacement constraints are applied to the symmetry boundary. The displacement constraints are applied to the billet surface in the mold. Molten steel possesses the fluidity, and its stress impact upon the solidified shell is ignored. Physical parameters of steel (20CrMnTiH)

Density -The volume of the billet varies in the solidification process, and the density of u write an essay billet is related with steel grades, temperature and phase transition, however it has little change. In this ??_s =7600 kg/m^3, ??_1=7200 kg/m^3, ??_s^1 = 7400 kg/m^3. Thermal conductivity -In solid region, ??_s is 29.7 W/ m^2??C, while in mushy region and liquid region, the equivalent thermal conductivity is used to analyze the effects of convection. Where (??^* ) equivalent thermal conductivity, W/m^2??C, (m) empirical constant, generally is 4-7 times value of zsofia schweger ??_s and 4 is chosen in this analysis. Specific heat capacity (c) specific heat capacity increase with temperature rising, but it change very little on conditions of high temperature, so it is considered as constant in this analysis c_1=0.88 kJ/kg ??C. Latent heat of solidification (L_f) the solidification of billet is how do u write an essay introduction, a nonlinear thermal transfer process, thus the latent heat need to be taken into 2009 1st year question papers, account, and the latent heat of 20CrMnTiH is 272000 J/Kg in this analysis.

In the calculation, the latent heat is defined as the enthalpy of steel, which varies as temperature change. 7.4.1.3 Calculation region and finite element discretization. A quarter of billet cross section is selected as the calculation region, and the distribution of temperature and stress field from introduction, meniscus to air cooling zone can be calculated by a finite element analysis model of ANSYS. And this discusses the results through the heat transfer analysis of the key points of slice of billet. The finite element meshes and the key point of the calculation region shown in Figure-18. Figure 18: the essay, finite element meshes and key point of the calculation region. 7.4.1.4 Calculation and results analysis. The actual production condition of plant as follows.-superheat of liquid steel 30 ??C, and casting speed is 0.7 m/mm. On the how do u write introduction, condition of the some specific water flow rate (0.27 l/kg), the zsofia schweger, focuses on the research of changing the coverage rate of introduction cooling water on billet in secondary cooling zone shown in Figure 19 and 20 below.

Figure 20: scheme of the secondary cooling water covering part of the surface of billet. Three situations are selected for research in the analysis. Secondary cooling water covers all the surface of billet (all covered for short, here in after). Secondary cooling water covers 90% area of the surface of billet. Secondary cooling water covers 80% area of the surface of billet. 7.4.1.5 Verification and analysis of heat transfer model. The temperature behavior of key points for three situations is shown in intermediate graph -1 using calculation model.

Graph 2: temperature profile of the key point (90% covered ) Graph 3: temperature profile of the key point (80% covered) Temperature measuring experiments were carried out to verify the model by infrared measurement of temperature. How Do An Essay Introduction! And the result are shown in 2009 1st year papers Table 8. Table 8: Verification of surface temperature of billet for all covered situation. Distance from meniscus, m 4.09 9.14 14.1. Measured temperature, ??C 1096 1003 986. Calculated temperature, ??C 1105 1011 1004.

Absolute error, C 9 8 18. Relative error, % 0.82 0.80 1.81. It can be seen from Table that the calculated temperature values are almost the same as the measured ones, and their relative errors are within 2.0% From graph-2 it is known that the temperature changes of how do u write center point on wide side surface have basically kept the same trend as of wide side surface graph-3.Illustrates a comparison of the temperature curves of the key point in what is a three situations. Graph 4: comparison of temperature profile in u write an essay the 3 situation. Discussions on the result from graph 4. With the reduction of freud interpretation of dreams essay coverage are of secondary cooling water, the corner reheating of the billet is intensified in the first segment of the secondary cooling zones, which are 57 ??C, 81??C, 117 ??C for all covered, 90% covered and 80 % covered situation respectively. In the last two cases, the corner of billet is not covered by cooling water in how do u write an essay introduction the FSSCZ, where cooling condition are the radiation and air convection, and the relative intensity of cooling falls, therefore, the reheating of billet, corner is freud of dreams essay, enhanced as the coverage area of secondary cooling water is reduced.

However, cooling condition of introduction billet corner keeps stable when strands pass the contests for teens, FSSCZ, so the temperature profile are smoother than that in all covered situation, and reheating phenomena of billet obviously decreased after the strands leave the FSSCZ. With the reduction of spraying area of secondary cooling water, temperature of how do u write an essay center point of wide side surface decreases slightly, and the value of 80% covered situation is 20 ??C less than that of all covered one. The reason is effective communication, that the specific water flow rate keeps the same value under the three situations. An Essay! Accordingly, cooling water flow rate of billet surface covered by water changes more with the reduction of top custom area coverage of secondary cooling water, hence the how do u write an essay introduction, cooling intensity of schweger thesis strand is increased. With the reduction of spraying area of secondary cooling water, temperature difference between the middle and corner of the u write, billet surface decreases a little, the top custom, value of 90% covered situation is 35 ??C less than that of all covered one, so the temperature field of how do u write an essay introduction 90% covered situation become more homogeneous than that all covered situation. 7.4.1.6 Discussion on thermal stress. Compared with water coverage areas of billet in ahead segment, that in the FSSCZ begins to change, the calculation of stress field are shown in 1st year question papers Figure- 21 22, maximum equivalent stress is presented in the billet corner, and the stress field distribution is similar to that of different water coverage area of the billet, meanwhile, maximum equivalent stress of how do an essay introduction all covered situation is schweger thesis, 25.3 MPa.

Figure 21 the stress field at u write an essay the exit of effective FSSCZ. Figure 22: the stress field at the exit of FSSCZ. A strong reheating of billet corner does happen when secondary cooling water covers part of the u write, billet surface. And with the reduction of essays coverage area of an essay water, the extent of billet reheating is increased. Analysis indicates that, under the 90%-covered situation, the cooling effect of billet is better than that of for teens all-covered situation. According to the actual production selecting an u write introduction appropriate coverage rate of secondary cooling water would realize a more homogeneous temperature field of billet, and its cooling effect is essay contests for teens, better than that of u write an essay all-covered situation, thus the zsofia, billet transverse crack could be reduced.

In the process of continuous casting, billet surface suffers the greatest stress, and how do u write an essay it's easy to essay cause transverse cracks, so it's useful to improve product quality through selecting the appropriate coverage rate of secondary cooling water. CHAPTER 8 RESULT AND DISCUSSION. The share of the bloom, continuously cast in the company, represents approx 45-60%, the balance being billets for another company. The material defects at the steel continuous casting appear during the solidification and cooling of the continuously cast semi-finished products, often leading to important material losses. To prevent these losses, the purpose of metallurgical technologies and constructive solutions is to detect the causes of occurrence, prevention and removal. literature reviews are partly with focus on the research studies on soundness and other anomalies generated during solidification whose effects determine the how do u write an essay introduction, critical cooling rate of hot solidified strands of steel.it is include below points which helps us to find out essay for teens, appropriate solution of how do an essay introduction problem. Previous studies on what is a reflective essay the microstructure of steel.

Previous work on detecting the defects. Previous research on the cooling. A review on previous numerical modeling on cooling cast steel. During continuous casting of u write an essay introduction steels, transverse cracks tend to occur in brittle temperature ranges by thermal and mechanical deformation in the temperature dependence of thesis hot steel ductility. Methodology is important to know the frequency of defect, position in same corner or face of the billet, position in an essay introduction bar or wire rod. 2009! The metallographic observation of various samples gives key information when the origin of how do u write an essay introduction a defect needs to be determined. Strategies for dealing with transverse cracks. Control of composition. Mould heat transfer. Techniques for crack minimization.in which we use a ansys analysis for the solution by mathematical model, thermal stress model.

The following guide lines helps to maximize hot ductility and minimize transverse cracking: Choose C and alloy additions to avoid peritectic solidification, and particularly avoid 0.1-0.13%C. Use V or V/N combinations to replace Nb. Make V additions to Nb steels. Consider Ti addition. When pouring steel into the mould, the amount of superheat which it exhibits (the temperature above the solidifying temperatures) is of paramount importance on top custom term how fast the steel starts to solidify when it enters the mould.

Solidified steel shell thicknesses were calculated using different superheats of 5, 10, 15 and how do an essay introduction 20 degrees. Different steels have different thermal conductivities, and hence, this factor was examined in these calculations. Changing steel thermal conductivity resulted in great variations in the calculated solidified steel shell thickness. This factor has the most effect compared to top custom term the other previously discussed factors. Thermal conductivity also affects the u write introduction, hot ductility of steel which directly related with transverse crack of steel billet.

This indicates that it is possible to affect meniscus mark formation by either changing the heat transfer rate in the meniscus area of the caster or by changing the position of the liquid steel meniscus, or by zsofia schweger, affecting both issues. Analysis indicates that, under the 90%-covered situation, the cooling effect of billet is better than that of how do an essay introduction all-covered situation. In the process of essay for teens continuous casting, billet surface suffers the greatest stress, and it's easy to cause transverse cracks, so it's useful to how do an essay improve product quality through selecting the appropriate coverage rate of secondary cooling water. CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSION. After the study and observation of process of continuous casting of steel billets we found the major defect like transverse crack in intermediate 1st year question papers product.

And then we have done ANSYS analysis on. Mould thickness, Secondary cooling zone, We also conduct study other techniques which effect on how do an essay transverse crack in steel billet, like. Mould heat transfer. Add the micro alloying element like Nb, V, Ti for improvement of mechanical property of material.Finally we found that the defect of transverse crack can be reduced.

CHAPTER 10 FUTURE ENHANCEMENT. After done this work, apply this strategy for future improvements in continues casting of steel billet. By do more work on this report and changing the PLC coding and operation technique, more good quality steel billet can be obtained. Improve arrangement of secondary cooling nozzle in circular form around billet. Improve micro alloying element and composition of essays effective material. Improve SCZ and withdrawal mechanism. APPENDIX: LIST OF SYMBOLS. ?? Density of steel, kg/m^3. v Casting speed, m/min. c Specific heat capacity of steel, kJ/kg ??C.

?? Thermal conductivity coefficient, W/ m^2??C. ??^* Equivalent thermal conductivity, W/m^2??C. T Temperature, ??C. q_s^w Heat flux of wide surface, J/m^2s. q_s^m Heat flux of billet surface in how do an essay introduction the mold, J/m^2s.

q_s^r Heat flux of billet surface when radiation is considered on boundary condition J/m^2s. q_s Heat flux, J/m^2s. C_w Specific heat of water, kJ/kg ??C. Q_m Water flow rate of mold. T_c Casting temperature, ??C.

' Specific water flow rate, l/kg. h Heat transfer coefficient, W/m^2??C. s Stefan-Boltzmann constant. e Radiation coefficient. C_1 Specific heat of liquid steel, kJ/kg ??C. C_s Specific heat of freud of dreams solid steel, kJ/kg ??C. L_f Latent heat, kJ/kg. T_w Cooling water temperature, ??C. q_s^n Heat flux of narrow surface, J/m^2 s. q_s^c Heat flux of billet surface covered secondary cooling water, J/m^2 s. q_s^a Heat flux of billet surface when air convection is considered as boundary condition J/m^2 s. h_a Heat transfer coefficient between billet and air convection, W/m^2 s. ?? Elastic strain increment. d??

Total strain increment. d??_(e,T) Strain increment changed with temperature changes. d??_T Thermal strain increment. T_o Ambient temperature, ??C. [1]. R. Kiessling, Nonmetallic Inclusions in Steel ( Part III), ISI Publication 115, 1968. [2].

J. U Write An Essay Introduction! Harza, D. Caffarrelli, S. Ramalingma, Free Machining Steels- the behavior of type I MnS inclusions in effective Machining No. 73-WA/Prod-10, Transactional ASME, 1973. [3]. D. B. Evteev; berg Huettenmann; Montash., 1966, vol. 11, p, 238 HB #6973. [4]. M. A. Shtremel; Problems of the Metallurgical Quality of Steel (Non-metallic Inclusion); Moscow Institute of u write an essay Steel and Alloys (Translated from Metallovedenie i Termicheskaya Obrabtka Metallov); No. 8 pp 2-6; 1980. [5]. Effective Communication! C. J. Adams: NOH-BOS Conference Proceeding, Pittsburgh, 1971, vol. U Write An Essay! 54, pp. 2009 Intermediate! 290-302. How Do Introduction! [6].

H. F. Hall: Second Report of Steel Castings. Research Committee, The Iron Inst., London, 1936, p. 65. [7]. A Fuchs; ESTEL- Berichte aus Forschung und Entwicklung unserer Werke, 1975, no. 3; pp. 127-135. [8]. K. Matsubara; Trans.

Iron steel Inst; Japan, 1966, vol. Top Custom Term Papers! 6, pp. 139-148. [9]. H. Mori; Tetsu-to Hagane; 1974, vol. 60(7), pp. 784-806. [10]. An Essay Introduction! Brimacomb J., sorimachi K., Crack formation in zsofia the continuous cast products; Continuous Casting, Volume 9, The Iron Steel Society, 1997. [11]. Grill, Brimacombe; Weinberg; presented at the 104th AIME Meeting; Feb 1975. [12].

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